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speak us Heathens than Christians? And lead us to Hell, than on the Way to Heaven? Such Customs as these may, in some Measure, be excusable among them whose *Church has too much led them into those Things; but it is scandalous and sinful and abominable in those, who pretend to be the Enemies of Error and Superstition, to continue the Observation of such sinful Customs.

* Vid. Seldon. Table Talk. C. of Christmas.

OBSERVATIONS ON CHAP. XXI. Mr. Bourne seems to wonder at the Luxury and Intemperance that usually prevailed at this Season: Was he ignorant that this was no more than a Vestige of the Romish Carnival. See Pancake-Tuesday in the Appendix. · The learned Moresin * derives the Carnival from the Times of Gentilism; he introduces Johannes Boëmus Aubanus describing it thus: “ Men eat “ and drink, and abandon themselves to every Kind “ of sportive Foolery, as if resolved to have their “ Fill of Pleasure before they were to die, and as " it were forego every Sort of Delight.” Thus also

* Comedit enim et bibit, seque loco jocoque omnimodo adeo dedit quasi usui nunquam veniant, quasi cras moritura, hodie prius: omnium rerum capere velit Satietatem, &c. Deprav. Rel. 142.

6 Selden:

Selden: “What the Church debars us one Day, “ she gives us Leave to take out in another: First "we fast, and then we feast: First there is a Car, “i nival, and then a Lent."

Fitzstephen informs us, that antiently on Shrove- ... Tuesday the School Boys used to bring Cocks of the Game* to their Master, and to delight themselves in Cock-fighting all the Forenoon... Vide Stow. Hence so many Welch Mains, &c. about this Season,

Since that Time a barbarous Custom hath been instituted on this Day of throwing at Cockst, which,

* The learned Moresin informs us, that the Papists derived this Custom of exhibiting Cock-Fights on one Day every Year from the Athenians, and from an Institution of Themistocles.-" Galli gal« linacei, says he, producuntur per diem singulis annis in pugnam « à Fupisequis, ex veteri Atheniensium forma ducto inore, et “ Themistoclis Instituto.". Cæl. Rhod. Lib. 9. variar. lect. Cap. 16. Idem Pergami fiebat. Alex. ab Alex. Lib. 5. Cap. 8. ?

'soot, Deprav. Rel. Orig. &c. p. 66. This Custom was retained in many Schools in Scotland within this Cevtury; perhaps it' is still in Use. The Schoolmasters were said to preside at the Battle, and claimed the run-a-way Cocks as their Perquisites. These were called “ Fugees;" corrupt I supposei of Refugees.- forbear to describe thé Mode of throwing at Cocks, for as Boerhaave observes on another Occasion, “To teach the Arts “ of Cruelty is equivalent to committing them.”

+ The ingenious Artist, Hogarth, has satirized this Barbarity in the first of the Prints called the Four Stages of Cruelty. Trusler (who by no Means handles his Pen as the Master did his Pencily tell us, in his Description of this Plate, “ We have several Groups “ of Boys at their different barbarous, Diversions. One is throwing at a Cock, the universal Shrove-tide Amusement, beating the • harmless feathered Animal to Jelly."-" It has been judiciously « observed, he farther remarks, speaking of Cats, that the Conceit '"' of a Cat's having nine Lives, bath cost at least nine Lives in ten ss of the whole Race of them; scarce a Boy in the Streets, but has in this point outdone even Hercules himself, who was renowned “ for killing a Monster that had but three Lives." ..' Visie Hogarth Moralized, P. 134.

WE

we hope will be soon forgotten amongst us. It is an Amusement fit only for the bloodiest Savages, and not for humanized Men, much less for Christians! This was formerly in Use on this Day at Newcastle, but is now laid aside. We wish it consigned to eternal Oblivion ! . .

Mr. Bourne takes no Notice of Ash-Wednesday, so called from a Custom observed in the antient Christian Church, of Penitents expressing their Humiliation at this Time by appearing in Sackcloth and Ashes*. The Want of this Discipline is at present supplied by reading publicly on this Day the Curses denounced against impenitent Sinners, when the People repeat an Amen after each Curse. · Enlightened as we think ourselves at this Day, there are many who consider this general Avowal of the Justice of God's Wrath against impenitent Sinners, as cursing their Neighbours , consequently like good Christians they keep away from Church on the Occasion.-A Folly and Superstition worthy of the After-midnight, the Spirit walking Time of Popery.

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Cinere quia se conspergunt in poenitentia Judæi. Gregor. Mag. statuit, ut in Quadragessima ante initium Missæ Cineres consecrentur, quibus Populus aspergebatur, & diein huic rei sacrum dat, in quo cuncti generatim mortales characterem cinereum in fronte accipiant. Moresin. Deprav. Rel. Orig. 37.

There is a curious Clause in one of the Romish Casuists concerning the keeping of Lent; it is, “ that Beggars which are ready to si affamisk for Want, may in Lent Time eat what they can get !

s tuktSee Bishop Hall's Triumphs of Rome, p. 123.

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In In a Convocation held in the Time of Henry the Eighth, mentioned in Fuller's Church History, p. 222, giving of Ashes on Ash Wednesday, to “ put in Remembrance every Christian Man in the “ Beginning of Lent and Penance, that he is but Ashes and Earth, and thereto shall return," &c. is reserved with some other Rites and Ceremonies, that survived the Shock, that almost overthrew, at that remarkable Æra, the whole Pile of Catholic Superstitions. CHAP. XXII.

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Of Palm-Sunday: Why so called : how observed

in the Popish Times : What it is truely to carry Palms in our Hands on this Day.

THE Sunday before Easter, which is denominated Palm-Sunday, is so called, * because, as the Ritualists say, on that Day, the Boughs of Palm-Trees were wont to be carried in Procession, in Imitation of those which the Children of Israel strawed in the Way of Christ. For they cut down Branches from the Trees, and strawed them in the Way; which according to the Consent of Antiquity, were the Branches of the Palin-Tree; it being very common in that Country, and used as an Emblem of Victory. And a Doctor of our own Church, in his Discourse upon this Festival, says, “ + From the Story, as described by St.

* Dicitur enim dominica in ramis palmarum, quod illo die rami palmarum in processionibus deportentur in significationem illorum, quos filii Israel statuerunt in via, Christo jam veniente. Belith. 531. P. 34. Cap. Durand. Lib. 6. P. 327. in Ram. : t Dr. Spark's Feasts and Fasts.

“ Luke

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