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Leipsic, or Leipzig .
Le Mans
Leon (I. de)
Le Puy
Lindesnaes, or the

Lipari Islands.
Lizard Point
Lundy (I.)
Mahon, Minorca I.
Malines, or Mechlin
Malo, St.
Martin, St.
Matapan, Cape
May, I. of
Milo (I.).
Mondego, Cape

Mediterranean Sea.
British Channel
Mediterranean Sea
Belgium .
Scilly Isles
Frith of Forth, N.Sea
(To be continued.)

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APTITUDE. THE old proverb that it is of little use patting a round stick into a square hole finds abundant confirmation in daily life. There exists, of course, in nature an adaptation which it requires no effort to secure. The olive and the pomegranate find their proper soil, and the lily its proper shade, and the cocoa-nut tree grows in arid regions where men need its stores of refreshing milk; and to everything there is a place. It is, however, the glory and honour of man's high estate that he has to exercise thought, and will, and judgment, and adapt means to ends. In the science of life it is important both to know what to do and how to do it in the best possible way. In well advanced states of civilisation the battle of life becomes one of intensified difficulty; and those who in earlier ages might have found them. selves first in the race, are amongst the last in more advanced eras of national life. Science is making such rapid progress, the facilities for education are so much greater and better in their kind, that the door of success opens only to those who have well fitted themselves for the competition of their own day. We cannot, however, shut our eyes to the patent fact that there are natural aptitudes which ought as early as possible to be sought out in each individual character. Some have a mechanical genius --some a positive faculty for learning languages—some find in mathematics pleasurable mental struggles ; whilst others have gifts differing in their nature and degree in other departments of knowledge and duty. Our aptitudes, of course, decide our likings; for those things which suit our taste and thought become of necessity not only easier but pleasanter than other things. Yet even aptitudes give us no immunity from toil and difficulty. Unless our knowledge is to be very superficial, there must be painstaking, care, and effort, in the culture and development of our powers. Universal geniuses seldom get on; their versatility of talent may be the early admiration of their friends, but it becomes their own bane and loss. They know something of everything, all the "ologies" find them possessed of a smattering ; but they excel in nothing, and are soon found to tire in the earnest prosecution of any separate study. Their gifts are their griefs in the end, inasmuch as the day of opportunity passes by without the strenuous exertion which ought to have been put forth in direct efforts for some ultimate end. These remarks require no modification of sentiment for thoughtful readers. They do not impugn the fact that knowledge must embrace many departments, and that a truly educated mind must have a broad sphere of exercise. They simply serve to show that aptitudes for mechanics, for music, for mathematics, etc., may be like the touch of a finger on the piano, which runs over the notes in a careless way, and is glad to escape from one study, so that it may easily pass on to another. Clever youths who can take photographs, bind their own books, build their own sheds, play piano or flute, mix their own medicines, and put their inefficient hands to anything or everything, may form the admiration of some select circle of basy idlers, but they seldom do anything worth doing, or gain anything worth gaining, in the race of life.

Aptitudes wisely discovered and tested, should be the foundation, so far as we are able to make them so, of future labour, and then the work should be carried on with perseverance and ardour. Even the most apt will meet with many an ugly difficulty, and many a wearisome hour. The musicians who charm us are men who have blistered their fingers and wearied their muscles, and tired their vision again and again. The mechanicians and manufacturers whose discoveries bring fame and fortune, are men like Palissy, the potter, who go on through hard battle after battle in sweat of brain as well as sweat of brow. No mistake can be greater than the supposition that aptitude means idleness. Aptitude is only the open gate which leads up the hill of difficulty to the goal of success.

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Having thus guarded the subject from misapprehensions which might arise, it may be remarked that nothing is more cruel than to persist in directing the minds of others to pursuits for which they have no aptitude or desire. Many who have thus been placed in the Church have had a life-long bitterness of heart; and others who have been buying and selling to get gain, have been yearning for some head and heart work which nature has wondrously fitted them for. True, indeed, it is that men may be mistaken in their own aptitudes. Conceit may


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deceive them, and it may be the delusion of their brain that Vous avez désobéi à vos parents. You have disobeyed your parents. they are made for posts which they admire and envy, rather Vous pardonnerez à vos ennemis. You will forgive your enemies. than have any special adaptation for. These mistaken ones Vous penserez constamment à vos You will think constantly of your


duties. soon knock their heads against the hard facts of life, and wake up to the startling discovery that they are in the wrong road; Ne riez-vous pas de nos erreurs ?

Vous y penserez constamment. You will think of them constantly.

Do you not laugh at our mistakes! wise, indeed, are they if they set themselves right as soon as

Nous n'en rions point.

We do not laugh at them. may be, and leaving the mistaken path, hasten across the inter- Ne ressemble-t-il pas à son père ? Does he not resemble his father ? vening fields to the old lane they were walking in before. Aptitudes themselves may be snares, inasmuch as their pos

VOCABULARY. sessor often depends too much upon genius and too little on toil. Arrangement, m., ar- Caur, in., heart. Ne--plus, no more. How comes it that many are more successful than others even rangement.

Devoir, m., duty. Nouvelle, f., nous. in paths for which they had no great adaptedness, and who dis. Circonstance, f., cir- Faute, f., fault. Peintre, m., painter, tance the geniuses far more clever in the work than themselves?


S'informer, 1, ref., to Prochain, m., neighbour


Complaisance, f., kind. On this principle, that they have made the very best of any

Sellier, m., saddler.

Malheur, m., misfor. Succès, m., success. little power they had. Ease of acquisition in knowledge tempts Conduite, f., conduct. | tune. to idleness not only in the lessons of school, but in the after pursuits of youth and manhood. It must be manifest to all

EXERCISE 149. thinkers that aptitudes are born, not made. Yet it is equally 1. Cet arrangement vous convient-il ? 2. Il ne me convient clear that we may suffer our best powers to be weakened by pas, mais il convient à notre parent. 3. Cela ne déplait-il pas disnse. To discover aptitudes, therefore, is not all ; we should au peintre ? 4. Votre conduite lui déplait beaucoup. 5. Ne very early try to give them due exercise, so that they may craignez-vous pas d'abuser de la patience de votre ami ? 6. Je grow. It is marvellous how any well-used power expands; and crains d'en abuser. 7. Ne pensez-vous jamais à vos devoirs ? for the most part it is only laziness which makes many con- 8. J'y pense tous les jours. 9. Avez-vous pensé à votre frère tented with a mediocrity of power and position, above which aujourd'hui ? 10. J'ai pensé à lui, et je me suis souvenu de they never even strive to rise. With many the aptitude of getting ses bontés. 11. A-t-il eu soin de son père, et lui a-t-il obéi ? wealth is considered the great gift; to make every wheel turn 12. Il lui obéit constamment. 13. Ne lui a-t-il jamais its grist to gold is considered the cleverest skill; but where désobéi? 14. Il lui a désobéi plusieurs fois, mais il gémit de this aptitude is secured, it still remains necessary to turn that sa faute. 15. Ne les remerciez-vous pas de leur complaisance ? gold into wisdom and happiness.

16. Je les en remercie de tout mon cœur. 17. Le sellier vous Aptitudes differ very greatly in families, and surely it should a-t-il félicité de votre succès ? 18. Il m'en a félicité. 19. be no too difficult task for parents to watch the workings of N'avez-vous pas ri de notre malheur? 20. Nous n'en avons the young nature, and see the bent and drift of the mind; pas ri, nous ne rions jamais des malheurs d'autrui. 21. No nor shonld the young forget that to know themselves lies very vous souvenez-vous pas des nouvelles que je vous ai apprises ? much at the foundation of all future success.

EXERCISE 150. Since the days of the good Prince Consort, science and art have made very rapid strides in Britain, and there are institu 1. Have you not abused your friend's kindness? 2. I have tions rising up now which will enable men to try their “ 'pren- not abused his kindness, I have abused his patience. 3. Does tice hand" at designs, architectural, scientific, and intellectual, not your conduct displease your parents? 4. My conduct does which but a generation or so ago they would have had no not please them. 5. Why have you not obeyed your father ? opportunity for doing. We live in an age when all aptitudes 6. I have obeyed him (lui). 7. Have you not laughed at my may soon be brought to the touchstone. The measure of our mistakes ? 8. I have not laughed at your mistakes. 9. Has opportunity is in all matters the measure of our responsibility; the young man laughed at the painter's mistakes ? 10. He and not least so in selecting the right field of labour, and stick has not laughed at his mistakes. 11. Has your saddler laughed ing fast to whatever plough we resolve to put our hand. at your cousin's misfortunes ? 12. He has not laughed at his

misfortunes. 13. Do you ever laugh at the misfortunes of

others? 14. We never laugh at our neighbour's misfortunes. LESSONS IN FRENCH.-XL.

15. Do you remember the lesson which you learnt yesterday ? SECTION LXXVII.-GOVERNMENT OF VERBS (continued).

16. I do not remember it (en). 17. Does that young lady 1. MANY French verbs reach their object by means of prepo- 19. Have you thanked your friend for his kindness? 20. I

resemble her mother ? 18. She does not resemble her mother. sitions, while the corresponding English verbs govern their hare thanked him for it. 21. Has your mother forbidden you object directly, that is, without intervening prepositions. to read that book? 22. She has forbidden it (me l'a). 23. Other French verbs reach their object through prepositions different from those used in English. We give here a few Why do you not forgive your enemies ? 24. I forgive them verbs coming under those two classes, commencing with the with all my heart. 25. Do you not think of your duties ?

SECTION LXXVIII.-REGIMEN OF ADJECTIVES ($ 87). 2. Verbs which have a preposition before a noun in French, 1. The regimen or complement of an adjective is generally but have none in English :

a noun or a verb completing its signification. This regimen is Abaser de, to abuse. | Jouir de, to enjoy. Plaire à, to please.

usually connected with the adjective by means of a preposition. S'approcher de, to ap. Manquer à, to ofend, Reesembler à, to resem 2. That preposition is often different in French from that prooch. to fail.


connecting the corresponding English adjective with its regi. Convenir á, to suit. Médire de, to slander. Se servir de, to use. Déplaire à, to displease. Se méfier de, to mis. Se souvenir de, to re 3. When an adjective follows the verb être used uniperDésobéir à, to disobey. trust.

member. Douter de, to doubt.

sonally, the preposition de connects that adjective with its Obéir to obey. Survivre à, to Echapper å, to escape. Pardonner à, to forgive,



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regimen :

vive. 3. Verbs reaching their object through different prepositions Il est nécessaire de travailler pour It is necessary to labour in order to

live. in the two languages :

4. The following adjectives reach their regimen through S'affiger de, to grierefor Louer de, to praise | Remercier de, to thank prepositions different in French and English :Féliciter de, to congra for.

for. Se passer de, to do Rire de, to laugh at. Amoureux de, in love | Désolé de, grieved for, Mécontent de, disGimir de, to grieve for. without. Rougir de, to blush with.

Exact à, exact in,

pleased with, S'informer de, to in- Penser à, to think of.

Bon à, good for.

Fâché de, sorry for. Poli envers, polite to. quire about Profiter de, to profit by. Songer å, to think of. Bon pour, keind to Inquiet de, uneasy Propre à, fit for.



Rebelle à, rebellious toRÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

Chéri de, beloved by. Insolent avec, insolent wards. N'avez-vous pas abusé de notre Have you not abused our patience ? Content de, pleased towards.

Reconnaissant de, patience ?


Ivre de, intoxicated grateful for.
Sous en avons abasé.
We hare obuced it.
Cruel à, cruel towards. with.

Rempli de, filled with,





your father well this morning? 6. He is much better. 7. Is it fine N'êtes-vous pas content de vos pro- Are you not pleased with your pro- weather to-day? 8. It is very beautiful weather; are you not going grès ?

to take a walk ? 9. We have neither horse nor carriage. 10. Can

gress? J'en suis fort content. I am very much pleased with it.

you not walk ? 11. I am too weary to walk. 12. Do you not take a Votre domestique est-il exact à Is your servant exact in fulfilling his ride every morning?. 13. I take a walk every morning. 14. How do remplir ses devoirs ?


you go? 15. Sometimes on foot, and sometimes in a carriage. 16. Avez-vous rempli de vin cette bou. Have you filled that bottle with wine? To whom do you apply when you want money ? 17. I apply to my teille?

banker. 18. Will you not sit down ? 19. We are much obliged to Avez-vous rempli d'argent votre Have you filled your purse with


20. Does that cloth sell very well? 21. It sells rery dear. bourse?


22. Are you not to go into the country if it is fine weather! 23. Is Jo l'en ai remplie. I have filled it with it.

your brother to leave town to-day? 24. He is to leave to-morrow Il est très-facile de blâmer les It is very easy to blame the actions

morning. actions d'autrui. of others.

EXERCISE 66 (Vol. I., page 333). Il est glorieux de mourir pour sa It is glorious to die for one's country. 1. Malle. votre sour se promène-t-elle tous les jours ? 2. Elle patrie.

se promène tous les matins. 3. Elle aime à aller à cheval et en Il est plus agréable de voyager en It is more agrecable to travel in sum- voiture. 4. Comment cette petite fille s'appelle-t-elle ? 5. Ello été qu'en hiver.

mer than in winter.

s'appelle L. 6. Ce Monsieur ne s'appelle-t-il pas L.? 7. Non, MonVOCABULARY.

sieur, il s'appelle G. et son cousin s'appelle H. 8. Comment se porte

M. votre frère ? 9. Mon frère se porte très-bien, mais ma sœur ne se Abatt-re, 4, ir., to cut Chagriné, e, vexed. Peuple, m., people.

porte pas bien. 10. Comment vos deux filles se portent-elles ? 11. down.

Encre, f., ink. Pommier, m., apple- Elles se portent passablement bien aujourd'hui. 12. Messieurs, ne Achat, m., purchase. Fend-re, 4, to cleave, Arrach-er, 1, to pull up, split.

voulez-vous pas vous asseoir? 13. Nous vous sommes bien obligés, Prunier, plum

Madame, nous n'avons pas le temps. 14. Ce livre se vend-il bien ? Aubergiste, m., inn- | Gloire, f., glory.


15. Il se vend très-bien. 16. Combien cette soie se vend-elle l'aune? keeper.

Liberté, f., liberty. Roi, m., king. Bois à brûler, m., fire- Nettoy-er, 1, to Sci-er, 1, to saw.

17. Elle se vend six francs l'aune, 18. Fait-il beau temps aujourd'hui?

19. Il fait très-beau temps, ne voulez-vous pas vous promener? 20. wood.

Tonneau, cask.

Je n'ai pas le temps de me promener, 21. À qui M, votre frère

s'adresse-t-il ? 22. Il s'adresse à son frère. 23. Son frère est-il à 1. Ce héros n'était-il pas amoureux de la liberté et de la la maison ? 24. Non, Monsieur, il est à Paris. 25. Quand a-t-il gloire ? 2. Il en était amoureux. 3. Ce roi n'était-il pas chéri l'intention d'aller en France ? 26. Il a l'intention d'aller en France de son peuple ? 4. Il en était chéri. 5. Ces négociants ne

dans un mois. 27. Malle. votre soeur, doit-elle partir demain matin ? sont-ils pas contents de leur achat? 6. Ils n'en sont pas con

28. Elle doit partir aujourd'hui, s'il fait beau temps. 29. Que dittents. 7. N'êtes-vous pas chagriné de ne pouvoir nous accom

on de ceci? 30. On n'en dit rien. pagner? 8. J'en suis désolé. 9. Savez-vous de quoi l'au

EXERCISE 67 (Vol. I., page 333). bergiste a rempli ce tonneau ? 10. Il l'a rempli de vin. 11. 1. Does the hair-dresser cut his thumb ? 2. No, Sir, he cuts his De quoi ferez-vous remplir cette bouteille, quand vous l'aurez hair. 3. Does not the carpenter cut his hand ? 4. He does not cut fait nettoyer ? 12. Elle est déjà remplie d'encre. 13. N'êtes- his hand, he cuts the wood. 5. Do you not remember that lady? 6. I vous pas bien fâché d'avoir fait abattre vos pommiers ? 14. remember that lady and those gentlemen. 7. With what do you J'en suis bien content, car ils n'étaient bons à rien. 15. N'est occupy yourselves ? 8. We occupy ourselves with our affairs. 9. Do il pas nécessaire de faire arracher ces pruniers ?. 16. Il n'est ber them at all. 11. Does not that little girl burn herself? 12. She

you remember the guns which your father has ? 10. I do not remempas nécessaire de les faire arracher. 17. Est-il possible de does not burn herself, there is no fire in the stove. 13. Why does not fendre ce morceau de bois ? 18. Il est possible de le fendre. the butcher warm himself ? 14. Because he is not cold. 15. Do those 19. Êtes-vous exact à nettoyer vos habits ? 20. J'y suis très children rise earlier than I? 16. They go to bed early, and rise every exact. 21. De quoi avez-vous rempli votre bourse ? 22. Je morning at six o'clock. 17. Will not your partner sit down ? 18. He l'ai remplie d'argent. 23. Est-il nécessaire de faire scier votre has no time to sit down. 19. Do you remember your promises ? 20. I bois à brûler ? 24. Il est nécessaire de le faire scier. 25. remember them perfectly. 21. Do you not warm yourself when you N'êtes-vous pas reconnaissant des services qu'on vous rend ? are cold ? 22. I almost never warm myself. 23. Do we not go to 26. J'en suis très-reconnaissant.

bed when we are sleepy ? 24. One goes to bed when one is sleepy, and

eats when one is hungry. EXERCISE 152. 1. Are you not grieved with having lost your money ? 2.

EXERCISE 68 (Vol. I., page 334). I am vexed that I have lost my purse. 3. With what will you 2. Quand je me porte bien, je me lève tous les matins à cinq



1. Vous levez-vous de bonne heure, quand vous vous portez bien ? fill that bottle ? 4. I will have it filled with ink. 5. Is it not 3. Vous rappelez-vous votre cousin L.? 4. Je me le rappelle parfaite. necessary to have our wood sawed ? 6. It is necessary to have ment bien 5. Vous couchez-vous de bonne heure ? 6. Nous nous our fire-wood sawed. 7. Your garden is too small, is it not couchons à dix heures. 7. Le tailleur ne se brûle-t-il pas les doigts ? necessary to have some plum-trees pulled up? 8. It is neces. 8. Il ne se brûle pas les doigts, son fer n'est pas chaud. 9. I.e char sary to have some plum-trees cut down. 9. Have you filled pentier se coupe-t-il le pouce? 10. Il ne se coupe ni le pouce ni la your friend's purse with silver? 10. I have filled it with gold. main. 11. Pourquoi ne vous chauffez-vous pas ? 12. Je ne me chauffe 11. Are all your bottles filled with wine ? 12. They are all pas, parceque je n'ai pas froid. 13. Ne fait-il pas très froid anjourd'hui ? filled with ink. 18. Are you sorry to have filled your bottles 14. Il ne fait pas froid aujourd'hui, il pleut. 15. Votre perruquier se with ink? 14. I am glad to have filled them with ink, for I soleil et il se couche au coucher du soleil. 17. Vous levez-vous do

lève-t-il au lever du soleil ? 16. Le charpentier se lève au lever du want ink. 15. Are you pleased with this book ? .16. I am

meilleure heure que moi? 18. Nous nous levons tous les matins au pleased with it. 17. Is that land good for anything? 18. It point du jour. 19. Vous coupez-vous souvent les cheveux ? 20. Je is good for nothing. 19. Is that lady beloved by her children? me coupe les cheveux et les ongles tous les mois. 21. Vous rappele". 20. She is beloved by her friends and by her children. 21. Are vous ce monsieur ? 22. Je me le rappelle très-bien. 23. Je ne me je you grateful for those services ? 22. I am grateful for them. rappelle pas. 24. Vous coupez-vous les doigts, quand vous taillez is 23. Is it not possible to split that piece of wood ? 24. It is not plume ? 25. Je me coupe la main quand je travaille. 26. Vous soupossible to split it. 25. Is it agreeable to travel in winter? venez-vous de ce que vous apprenez? 27. Je ne me souviens pas c 26. It is not so agreeable to travel in winter as in summer. bien 2 0 29. Il se porte fort bien aujourd'hui. 30. Mme. votre mère 19

tout ce que j'apprends. 28. Savez-vous si M. votre père se porte 27. It is easy to blame others. 28. Is it not glorious to die for one's country ? 29. It is glorious to live and to die for one's se porte-t-elle pas bien ? 31. Elle ne se porte pas très-bien. country. 30. Have you filled the inkstand (encrier) with it?

EXERCISE 69 (Vol. I., page 334). 31. I have filled it with it. 32. Would it not be necessary to 1. Do you like to live in the country? 2. I prefer the country to pull up all those trees ? 33. It would not be necessary to pull the city. 3. Do you often become weary of remaining in the country? them all up, for my garden is very large. 34. Henry the 4. When I become weary of the country, I return to the city. 5. Do Fourth (quatre) was beloved by his people.

they hear from General L. ? 6. Nothing is heard of him. 7. Are you

sometimes mistaken? 8. Everybody is mistaken sometimes. 9. Does KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN FRENCH.

the banker deceive his clients ? 10. He deceives neither his clients EXERCISE 65 (Vol. I., page 333).

nor his friends, he deceives nobody. 11. Are you not mistaken in this

bill? 12. I am not mistaken. 13. Do you amuse yourself in reading 1. What is that gentleman's name? 2. I do not know his name. or in writing? 14. I amuse myself in learning German and French. 3. Is not that lady called L. ? 4. No, Madam, she is called M. 5. Is 15. Are you wrong to learn languages ? 16. I am right to learn



them. 17. Do yog often become weary ? 18. I become weary when chlorine is passed. The chlorine seizes the magnesium, and I have nothing to do. 19. How do you amuse yourself when you are sets free the bromine, which gives & reddish-yellow colour to the in the country ? 20. We walk in the morning, and work the re

liquid. The bittern is now shaken with ether, which dissolves mainder of the day.

the bromine and floats on the surface; it is decanted into a glass EXERCISE 70 (Vol. I., page 334).

vessel; a little caustic potash being added, potassium bromide is 1. Ne vous trompez-vous pas ? 2. Je ne me trompe pas. 3. Le made. This process is frequently repeated, the same ether being banquier ne se trompe-t-il pas ? 4. Il ne se trompe pas, mais son com

used. The potassium bromide which is thus prepared is mixed mis se trompe certainement. 5. Ne vous trompe-t-il pas? 6. Il te me trompe pas, il ne trompe personne. 7. N'avez-vous pas tort de with black oxide of manganese and sulphuric acid in a retort ;

The reaction is thus tromper votre père ? 8. Je n'ai pas l'intention de le tromper. heat being applied, bromine distils over. 9. Le marchand ne se trompe-t-il pas ? 10. Il se trompe dans le

expressedmémoire qu'il écrit. 11. Aimez-vous la ville ou la campagne? 12. Je 2BrK + 2H,80, + Mno, = 2Br + K,80+ Mnso, + 2H,0. préfère la ville, je m'ennuie bientôt à la campagne. 13. Cet enfant De vous ennuie-t-il pas par ses questions ? -14. Cette longue his. It will be noticed that this process is identical with that of toire ne vous ennuie-t-elle 15. Elle ne m'ennuie pus, elle liberating chlorine from common salt.


16. Vous amusez-vous quand vous êtes à la campagne ? Properties.—Bromine is a liquid of a deep red colour, having 17. Je m'y amuse, j'apprends le français et l'italien. 18. Ne vous a density of 2:966. It boils at 47° Cent., and evaporates at all ennuyez-vous pas chez votre oncle ? 19. Je ne m'y ennuie jamais. temperatures. Its vapour is a dense red. If swallowed, it 20. M. votre frère se trompe-t-il souvent? 21. Tout le monde se operates as a powerful irritating poison. It bleaches more feebly trompe quelquefois. 22. Sa conversation vous ennuie-t-elle ? 23. Au than chlorine, but will not support the combustion of a taper. contraire, elle nous amuse. 24. Reçoit-on des nouvelles de M. votre It combines with many metals forming “bromides." frère ? 25. On n'entend pas parler de lui. 26. Malle. votre seur se porte-t-elle bien ? 27. Non, Monsieur, elle est malade.

Hydrobromic Acid (symbol, HBr; combining weight, 81 ;

density, 40.5).—This compound cannot be made like hydroEXERCISE 71 (Vol. I., page 342).

chloric acid from the combination of hydrogen and bromine in 1. Can you do without ink? 2. We can do without it, we have nothing the sun-light, but the elements will combine if passed through to write. 3. Do you use your pen? 4. I am not using it, do you a red-hot porcelain tube. It may also be obtained by decomwant it? 5. Will you not draw near the fire ? to yon. I am not cold. 7. Why do those young ladies go from the posing the bromide of phosphorus by water. Thus, window ? 8. They leave it because it is too cold there. 9. Do not

PBr, + 4H,0 = H,PO. + 5BrH. those children apply to you? 10. They apply to me and to my The experiment is performed by a tube bent as in Fig. 44. In brother. 11. At what hour do you awake in the morning ? 12, I the bend P pieces of phosphorus are placed, separated from awake generally at a quarter before six. you awake? 14. I rise as soon as I awake. 15. What books do each other by fragments of moistened glass. In the bend B is you use? 16. I use mine and yours. 17. Do you not use your placed a little bromine, and the tube closed by a cork. On brother's ? 18. I use them also. 19. Are the pens which you use applying a gentle heat at B, the bromine vapours pass into P, good? . Why does your friend draw back from the fire ? 21. He where the bromide of phosphorus is formed and is decomposed draws back because he is too warm. 22. Why does your servant draw by the water on the glass. The hydrobromic acid thus produced near it? 23. He draws near to warm himself. 24. Are you becoming passes out from t. It is a colourless gas, and can be liquefied weary of being here ? 25. I am not weary of it.

under strong pressure. Its action on metallic oxides is analogous. EXERCISE 72 (Vol. I., page 342).

to that of hydrochloric acid, forming a bromide of the metal and 1. Voulez-vous me prêter votre canif ? 2. Je ne puis m'en passer, water. j'en ai besoin pour tailler ma plume. 3. Voulez-vous vous servir de

COMPOUNDS OF BROMINE WITH OXYGEN. mon livre ? 4. J'ai besoin de m'en servir, voulez-vous me le prêter ? 3. De quel couteau M. votre frère se sert-il ? 6. Il se sert du contean this acid can be obtained by agitating bromine water with the

Hypobromous Acid (Symbol, HBrO).-An aqueous solution of de mon père et de la fourchette de mon frère. 7. Ne voulez-vous pas oxide of mercury. In distilling the solution, care must be taken vous approcher du feu ? 8. Nous vous sommes bien obligés, nous avons chaud. 9. Cette demoiselle a-t-elle assez chaud ? 10. Elle a not to raise the temperature above 30° Cent., lest the hypobromous très-froid. 11. Dites-lui de s'approcher du feu ? 12. Pourquoi vous acid should be decomposed into bromic acid and free bromine. Cloignez-vous du feu ? 13. Nous avons trop chaud. 14, M. votre frère The aqueous solution of the acid is light yellow, has a sweetish s'éloigne-t-il de la fenêtre ? 15. Il s'éloigne de la fenêtre parcequ'il a taste, and is a powerful bleaching agent. froid. 16. À qui ce monsieur s'adresse-t-il ? 17. Il s'adresse à moi

Bromic Acid (symbol, HBrOz) is formed when chlorine is et à mon frère. 18. Pourquoi ne s'adresse-t-il pas à moi? 19. Parce- passed into bromine water. Thusqu'il a honte de vous parler. 20. Vous éveillez-vous de bonne henre, tous les matins ? 21. Je m'éveille de bonne heure, quand je

Br + 3H,0 + 5C1 = 5HCI + HBrOg. me couche de bonne heure. 22. Pourquoi vous endormez-vous ? 2. Je m'endors parceque je suis fatigué. 24. Avez-vous peur de vous

With bases this acid forms “bromates," which salts are decomapprocher de votre père ? 25. Je n'ai pas peur de m'approcher de posed by heat in the same way as chlorates. lui. 35. Pouvez-vous vous passer de nous ? 27. Nous ne pouvons

Bromine forms with hydrogen an oily detonating liquid, which nous passer de vous, mais nous pouvons nous passer de votre frère. resembles the chloride of nitrogen. 3. Avez-vous besoin du cheval de mon frère ? 29. Non, Monsieur,

IODINE. nous pouvons nous en passer. 30. Avez-vous l'intention de vous passer d'argent ? 31. Vous savez très bien que nous ne pouvons nous

SYMBOL, I-COMBINING WEIGHT, 127— DENSITY, 127. en passer. 32. M. votre frère s'ennuie-t-il ici ? 33. Il ne s'ennuie pas Iodine is found in the sea in really less quantities than bromine, ici. 34. Approchez-vous du feu, mon enfant.

but it is obtained with more ease, for the sea-weeds, etc., store it in their tissues. When these are burnt, the ash, which is called

kelp, is broken into small fragments, digested with boiling water, LESSONS IN CHEMISTRY.-XIV. and the solution thus formed is evaporated down until a film BROMINE.

forms on its surface, when it is set aside to crystallise. Sodium STYBOL, Br ATOMIC WEIGHT, 80 DENSITY, 80.

sulphates and carbonates and potassium chloride separate.

The mother liquor is treated with one-eighth of its bulk of In many of its properties this element resembles chlorine, but sulphuric acid, and after it has stood to allow the precipitates to its affinities are not so strong, since it can be displaced from its fall, and some of the sulphates to crystallise out, the clear combinations by that gas. It owes its name to the severe liquid is mixed with manganese dioxide, and introduced into a manner in which it affects the respiratory organs. Bpwuos is leaden retort. Upon the application of heat, iodine passes into the Greek for "stench.” It never occurs free in nature, but the receivers and condenses. The reaction isis found combined with magnesium in sea-water, especially in

2NaI + 2H,80, + Mno, that of the Dead Sea. The peculiar smell of sea-weed is due

Na,so, +MnSo. + 2H,0 + 21. to its presence. Berthier discovered it in a silver ore from Properties.--Iodine is a solid, which crystallises in plates, Mexico, but it is invariably obtained from the "mother liquor" having a brilliant metallic lustre ; when a little is heated at the of the sea.

bottom of a test-tube, beautiful violet vapours are given off, Preparation.--A quantity of sea-water is reduced by evapo- which condense in the upper part of the tube into the solid mation; the crystallisable salts, sodiam chloride, eto., “crystallise iodine. This colour gives the element its name, wôns being the ont;" into the “bittern” which thus remains a stream of Greek for violet.

Iodine gives off vapour at all temperatures, and must there- of three atoms of caustic soda, and one atom of sodium fore be kept in a bottle with a glass stopper, as the vapours iodate. attack cork. The skin and organic bodies are stained by it Nitric iodide, which is generally supposed to be the ter-iodide of yellow. This stain, however, passes away so soon as the iodine nitrogen (NI,), is an interesting compound, from the readiness evaporates. It is slightly soluble in water, this liquid being with which it explodes. Place a little iodine in a capsule, and capable of holding tao of its weight in solution. It is freely pour upon it sufficient ammonia to cover it well. Allow this to dissolved in alcohol and ether, and a minute piece of iodine im- digest for half an hour; then pour off the supernatant liquid, parts a rich colour to bisulphide of carbon; but the chief liquid em- and place the brown substance upon pieces of blotting paper-a ployed for its solution is the solu.

little on each paper; leave them tion of a soluble iodide, such as

to dry, if by a fire, at some distance potassium iodide.

from it. When dry, a shake of The most delicate test for iodine

the paper is sufficient to determine is the intense blue colour it imparts

the decomposition with explosion. to starch. However, to effect this,

Iodine is noted in the medical the iodine must be in an uncom

world for its great powers of bined state. Chlorine water or

Fig. 4.

absorption. Glandular swellings nitric acid will always liberate

may be removed by it which have iodine from its combinations, and therefore, if the presence of an resisted every other means. It is used for this purpose in a soluiodide be suspected, add one or other of these agents to the tion, which is made as above described. Its action is greatly acsolution, and

then the starch paste. One part of iodine, dissolved celerated if a few grains of potassium iodide be taken internally in a million parts of water, will be made apparent by this test. each day.

FLUORINE. Hydriodic Acid (symbol, HI; combining weight, 128 ; density, 64). --This acid is best prepared in a manner similar to that by

SYMBOL, F-ATOMIC WEIGHT, 19. which hydrobromic acid was procured-namely, by acting on

Hitherto no attempt to isolate this element has been successphosphorio iodide with water, thus

ful. Its affinities are so powerful, and its action on the human

frame so violent, that little is known of it. Its only compound PI, + 3H,0 = H,PO, + 3HI.

which occurs in any abundance, is Derbyshire spar, calcium However, it may be made directly by heating iodine in an atmo. fluoride (CaF,).. Many minerals contain this salt in small sphere of hydrogen; or a solution of this acid may be easily quantities. It is detected in teeth, and even in the blood of prepared by suspending iodine in water, and transmitting a animals. Fluorine is not known to combine with oxygen, nitrogen, current of sulphuretted hydrogen gas until the brown colour sulphur, or the other halogens. disappears. Sulphur is deposited, and hydriodic acid formed,

Hydrofluoric Acid (symbol, HF; combining weight, 20; denwhich goes into solution in the water. If this solution besity, 10).—To prepare this acid, Derbyshire or fuor spar is exposed to the air in sunlight, it gradually absorbs oxygen, reduced to a powder, introduced into a leaden or platinum retort the hydrogen of the acid forming with it water, and the libe- (Fig. 45), and then mixed with sulphuric acid. Upon the rated iodine renders the liquid brown. Iodides are formed by re- application of heat, this reaction ensuesplacing the hydrogen of the above acid by the metal, according

H,SO, + CaF, = Caso, + 2HF. to its atomicity. When iodides are heated, the iodine goes off, The bent part of the tube in Fig. 45 is immersed in a freezing and an oxide of the metal is formed. Of course, in the case of mixture, and here the hydrofluoric acid condenses into a colourthe noble metals (Au, Ag, Pt, and Hg), the metal remains. The less liquid. elements, chlorine and bromine, when acting on iodides, have the It is an energetic acid, and has the power of converting power to remove the iodine, and insert themselves in its place. metallic oxides into water and metallic fluorides. Of all chemical Oxides of Iodine.—This element

substances, its effect on the skin has a greater affinity for oxy

is the most painful. It will progen than either of the preceding

duce a sore which exhibits but halogens; but of its oxides, the

small inclination to heal. Its most only two which have been studied

characteristic property is its power are iodic acid and periodic acid.

to etch on glass. It effects this, Iodic acid, or hydric-iodate (sym

because with silica-one of the bol, HIO), corresponds closely to

constituents of glass-it forms a chloric acid. It is prepared by

gaseous product (Si F.), hydrofluothe action of strong nitric acid on

silicic acid : thusiodine. When the iodine has nearly

Sio, + 4HF = 21,0 + SiF disappeared, the liquid upon cool. ing gives crystals of iodic acid.

To exhibit its effects, a glass When iodine is dissolved in

plate is covered with bees'-2x, caustic potash or soda, the re

upon which fluorine has no action, sult is a mixture of iodide and

and any design traced with a sharp iodate of potassium or sodium.

point in the wax. This is exposed The iodate being much the most

to the vapour of hydrofluoric acid, difficult to dissolve, may easily

and the parts of the glass exposed be separated from the iodide.

Fig. 45.

are etched; the glass is "frosted” Or if, in the course of the pro

by the vapour; but if the solution cess, chlorine gas be passed, then no iodide is formed; thus- of the acid, which is sold in gutta-percha bottles, be poured on I + 6KHO + 5C1 KIO, + 5KC1 + 3H,O.

glass, the glass is eaten away. Any photographic artist will

at once appreciate this fact to enable him to remove the frostWhen iodates are heated, they behave like chlorates, giving off ing from the back of the glass stereoscopic slides, and thus it oxygen.

will be possible to take "prints" from them. Iodic acid is at once decomposed by sulphurous acid. This The halogens form the best defined of natural groups of eleprovides a test for the presence of sulphur in any combustion.ments. Their atomic weights are almost in arithmetical proSoak a piece of paper in a mixture of potassium iodate and gression. starch-paste, then expose it to the fumos; if any sulphurous

F acid be present, the paper becomes blue. Morphia possesses a

35-5. like power, and hence by this test the presence of this powerful

Br poison may be detected.


127. Periodic Acid, or Hydric-periodate (HIO.).—This acid can Chlorine is a gas, bromine a liquid, and iodine a solid. More only be obtained in combination. Sodium per-iodate (Nalo) over, bromine, in its affinities, is a mean between chlorine and may be prepared by passing chlorine through a solution iodine, and all form directly, with the metals, salts.



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