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The bones now described lay north and south, at the depth of six palms, in a stratum of calcareous earth, mixed with vegetable, mould; under which was a stratum of volcanic puzzolane, mixed with leucites.
Upon the bony parts of these remains, it does not appear that any particular observations were made: But the teeth presented appearances sufficiently singular. They consisted of two different substances; one soft, white and opaque; the other hard, yellow, semitransparcnt and horny, traversing the former substance, which resembled the gum or matrix, in tubulæ, or smaller sets of teeth. The fame appearance was observed in the recent teeth of an African elephant. Our author examined both substances with chemical re-agents. With the mineral acids, the white matter gave a small effervescence; the yellow matter none at all. The phosphoric acid produced no effervescence, when poured on the yellow matter, and very little when poured on large masses of the white; but when mixed with the latter in its mouldered or calcined state, the effervescence was considerable. It would appear from hence, that the exposure to the air caused the bones to moulder, by enabling them to attract carbonic acid gas.
At Count Morrozzo's desire, Professor Morecchini analyzed both these substances; and his experiments are inserted at length in the present memoir. We do not conceive it necessary to follow his process minutely, and shall content ourselves with noticing the results to which it led. He found that the white and soft, part, which we have called the matrix of the other, was composed of fluat and carbonat of lime, a little phosphat of lime, and animal gluten, and, he thought, also a small portion of alumine. The yellow and hard part, was found to consist chiefly of phosphat of lime, some carbonat of lime, and gluten. The proofs of fluoric acid are equivocal.
The fame results nearly were obtained by Cuvier, on examining specimens of fossil teeth, and comparing them with (he teeth of the African elephant, Hence it is inferred, that the opinion is erroneous which ascribes the remains found near Rome, to the elephants of Hannibal. Upon closely examining the description and me drawings, however, we find that the difference of structure 1S very trifling. The tubulous parts in two seriescs of the African elephant's teeth, are almost exactly similar to those of the fossil teeth; and the appearance of the other series differs no more from toe fossil bone, than from the former parts of the African elephant's tooth. Our author's own drawing must convince any Qne, on the slightest inspection, that the fossil and African teeth flight easily have been different parts of the fame tooth; much ra°re, fragments of different teeth of the fame species of ani
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Art. VIII. Examen de FEsclavagi en generals et pariinthmment de fEsdavage des Negres dans Us Colonies fraffs ai/es it FAmerlque. Par V. D. C. Ancien Avocat et Colon de St Domingue. 2 torn. 8vo. pp. 600. Paris, 1802 & 3
ON looking into this work, we were delighted to sind that it attained, what we had long been extremely desirous to sec, 1 fair, open, and avowed eulogium upon slavery, with a manful ani consistent vindication of the slave trade, founded upon an ezpfick statement of those principles which must necessarily be adopts by its supporters, but which so few of them, among us, can b? brought to acknowledge. In this view, the work is very interfiling, as bringing the question to a fair issue, and affording a fir* and steady view of those doctrines, of which we have only ben able to obtain an imperfect and hasty glimpse, in the reasonhp of those who have in this country defended the system of colocai slavery. We have occasion to know, also, that the principle maintained in this, work, are precisely those upon which the Frnxi West Indian colonies are proposed to be administered, and tb; these volumes have been subscribed to by all the good colonists of that country, as their confession of faith. These confideratea; have determined us to enter pretty fully into the speculations of M. V. D. C.; and we are the more inclined to bestow upon bi= an extraordinary share of attention, because the facts which b; has sometimes asserted, seem to us very likely to mislead the unwary—both from the confident tone of the author, and from bi undoubted opportunities of information—unless they are thoroughly sifted and exposed; and because he has collected into one poiE, a variety of scattered opinions, exceedingly erroneous, but verr popular, upon the general subject of negro slavery. It is not ccr intention, however, to give a complete analysis of this work, a: to refute even every part of it to which we may find it neceflirv to allude. The doctrines which we most of all feel disposed Ootcject, are of an absurdity so palpable and egregious, that we ned but quote them as curiosities, in order to expose them. After this part of our tasle is finished, therefore, it will remain to select rk most material errors in point of fact, (we willingly give them tfa: name) which the author has committed; and to produce son* very material evidence, which he has unwarily furnished, agzEK a cause less consistently, but with greater moderation, supported by others. We shall conclude, by presenting our readers wish 1 few considerations seldom attended to in the views which meusually take of the future progress of the negro race, chiefly ia the New World.
In the general tenor of its logic, this work resembles most of those lately permitted to see the light in France. An abhorrenca of the equality worshipped in the earlier part of the revolution, gradually leads to the abjuration of the liberty which used to be coupled with it. Hence, the transition is easy to an utter rejection of every thing approaching to a republic, for, what are all. popular forms of government, but modes of democracy? Therefore, the people must only think how they shall bow and obey. We are thus brought to the necessity of absolute monarchies, from the very nature of things. But the only danger is, lest they should be too mild. The people must therefore be carefully deprived of every thing approaching to privilege or liberty,—all of which ought properly to centre in one hereditary monarch. Now, what is personal liberty, but a modification of civil rights, for which few arc fitted, and still fewer have any need? And do not men every day fell their liberties, or hire their persons, which is the fame thing? Moreover, are not some men so brutisied, that personal rights would be thrown away upon them? How natural, then, is it, that some (hould be masters, and others slaves? And how useful, too, is this subordination, which the vulgar call slavery? Not to mention other things, it is the source of good government, peace, sugar and coffee, national prosperity, (hips and fine colonies. Hence we are easily led to the conclusion, that every thing is quite as it ought to be, both in the mother country, and the lesser colonies of France; that the weeds of privilege and personal liberty are wisely eradicated from both parts of the empire; and that the complete regeneration of that happy system only requires a continued submission to the Em
Eeror in the Old world, and an increased importation os African easts of burden (commonly called men and women by other writers) in the New. It forms an occasional variety in this scheme, sometimes to contrast the excellence of the Catholic religion with the horrors of revolutionary impiety; and at other times, to deny the authority of the Bible, and laugh at the precepts of all religions, when they interfere with the interest of the planters. Whether we have overcharged this (ketch of the general principles of reasoning adopted by ouf author, and taken by him from the present fashion of Parisian writers, let the following particulars (hew; in which, it may be observed, that he can frequently boast an entire originality, even among the productions of his own countrymen.
We pass over his long invectives against equality and civil liberty—his appropriate praises of the new government—his bitter abuse of the freedom enjoyed in Great Britain (which consists it seems of privileges partly hurtful and partly nonsensical)—his ar-t
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jjuments to prove (what not long ago would have passed for i contradiction in terms all over France) that democracy is, of ill governments, the molt absurd. These discussions occupy mud of these volumes. We (hall only notice two particulars as specimens of the rest. He commits the slight mistake of suppoGnjf juries to be annually elected; and inveighs against so horrid 21 institution with due energy. (II. 115.) He maintains that English liberty is absolutely limited to these two privileges—robbin; on the highway, and throwing stones at the king. (II. 59.)
It is of more importance to cast an eye upon his objections to personal liberty, and his continual praises of domestic slaver;, unler whatever form it may appear; for, by these, he ultimately supports his main positions upon the negro system. According to him, different men are born with different faculties, aal are thereby destined by nature for different stations in society. Now, one st;tion is that of slavery; therefore, certain men sr: born to be slaves: nor ought they to repine at this lot;—Terence, Phxdrus, Æsop, and many other great men among tin ancients, were slaves. The brave Gauls and Germans used U sell their liberties, or lose them, at play; and among the lower animals, we find none who do not thrive in the comfortable itate of servirude. This last topic of consolation is so curioui't imagined and illustrated, that we shall insert the passage at length, as a fair specimen of the reft,
• Observe the largest, the strongest, the most serociou*, the rr.--r: laborious and most generous of animals: both birds and quadnrpees become habituated to slavery;—for example, the lion, the wolf, 1!: hear, the fox, and even the tiger, who at least lives in his cage, b the East, panthers, ounces, and leopards are employed in the chafe, a -^1o<ts are with us. The eh-phant may be tamed, and rendered a domes: 8f imal in a week. The very fishes themselves learn to know the veb of a master, and to receive food from his hands. The pold-tith I:<s cni.untcdly in his jar in our apartments. I know only of the hu«nmi-; hird which dies speedily in confinement: and why? because he Csj no longer hop from flower to flower, and sip the nectar he loves. Hotever, a Dominican friar, 1 believe his name was Feuillee, at Nfartiniqzr, succeeded in keipinjr OI,e three months, by means of the proper atte> tion to its diet. ' (11. 282.)
In short, the aversion to slavery is a mere prejudice; wboi'f devoid of all reason; unfounded either in the analogy of natcre. or the example of past ages; and utterly unknown even to the vulgar themselves, until the false philosophy of modern time!, at which it is now become fashionable to rail in Paris, 6liu men's heads with a multitude of dangerous chimeras.
Now, our author observes, that the order of nature thnsdrar
ly requiring a certain portion os mankind to live as (laves to the rest, it is only necessary to inquire on what portion of the species this lot should fall. The Europeans are evidently out of \.he question; they are the nobler animal. The Asiatics are too ar off, and might probably not come, when called, to take their Place j besides, they have some good qualities. The Americans are not at all improper for the station; only that their numbers are small, their strength not very great, and they live in situaMons exceedingly incommodious for the trader. Who then but 'he Africans can be the servile cast? And, of the Africans, who Sut the Negroes inhabiting the West Coast? Accordingly, a very large portion of this work is taken up with a detail of the bad qualities and defects of the Negroes; their necessary unsitness .'or every thing but slavery; and the infinite misery of their nature, until happily removed to the genial soil of the West Indies, wliere they both thrive admirably themselves, and are the source of every benefit to their proprietors. *
* It is so rare to meet with a formal eulogy of slavery, that our readers might not think us serious in the statements we have given of the author's love for that condition (a passion which he (hares with almost, all the present race of French political writers), did we not give a specimen of his praises.
'I know nothing which is so well calculated to give sensible men a just idea of slavery, as the silence of Epictetus on his own condition. Add to this, the silence of Terence and of Phædrus. How happens it, that these ancient authors, who were themselves slaves, have left us no invectives against slavery? And how comes it to pass, that our modern writers who were slaves, declaim so violently against this condition? The ancients were acquainted with the nature of man; and the moderns only know the art of reformation.' (II. 255. Note.)
That our readers may have some idea os the fatal tendency which the present dynasty in France has to check the progress of improvement, wherever liberty, or liberality of opinion, is at all concerned j and in order to demonstrate the truth of what we have observed concerning the ahominable nature of the principles now propagated most sedulously by all the writers of the government, we subjoin the following anecdote :—A work was lately published in Paris by a Citoyen Ferrier, of the Bayonne revenue department, entitled, * Du Gouvcrnar:ent considere danslet rapports avec It Comnurce.' The professed object of this very singular production, is to preach up the ii+ole doRrincs of the mercantile system, and to bring back men's minds from the errors in which the modern political writers, particularly Smith, have too long bewildered them. There is literally not one single absurdity in the whole extent of the mercantile ^hcory which this work docs not warmly espouse. In the ' Journal