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mortifying when they come to act with those of, were wantonly violated by the British troops, our allies. If it is possible, I have no doubt im. by ours they were respected. This distinction mediate measures will be taken to relieve their must, unhappily, now cease, and we must assume distress. It is also most sincerely to be wished, the odious character of the plunderers instead of that there could be some supplies of clothing furthe protectors of the people; the direct consenistred for the officers. There are a great many quence of which must be, to alienate their minds whose condition is really miserable still, and in from the army and insensibly from the cause. some instances it is the case with almost whole state lines. It would be well for their own sakes but we have this day, but one day's supply in camp,
We have not yet been absolutely without Rour, and for the public good, if they could be furnished. When our friends come to co-operate with us, between this place and Trenton. I shall be obliged
and I am not certain that there is a single barrel they will not be able to go on the common routine
therefore to draw down one or two hundred bar. of duty-and if they should, they must be held,
rels from a small magazine, which I had endeavor. from their appearance, in low estimation.
ed to establish at West Point, for the security of (CIRCULAR)
the garrison, in case of a sudden investiture. Head Quarters, near the Liberty Pole, From the above state of facts, it may be foreseen
Bergen county, 27th August, 1780. that this army cannot possibly remain much longer SIR-The honorable the committee of co opera. together, unless very vigorous and immediate mea. tion having returned to congress, I am under the sures are taken by the states to comply with the disagreeable necessity of informing your excellen. requisitions made upon them. The commissary cy that the army is again reduced to an extremity general has neither the means nor the power of of distress for want of provision. The greater procuring supplies-he is only to receive them part of it has been without meat from the 21st to from the several agents. Without a speedy change the 26th. To endeavor to obtain some relief, 1 of circumstances, this dilemma will be involved: moved down to this place, with a view of stripping either the army mus: disband, or what is, if possi. the lower parts of the country of the remainder ble, worse, subsist upon the plunder of the people. of its cattle, which, after a most rigorous exaction, I would fain flaiter myself that a knowledge of is found to afford between two and three days' sup. our situation will produce the desired relief: Dot ply only, and those consisting of milch cows, and a relief of a few days, as has generally heretofore calves of one or two years old. When this scanty been the case, but a supply equal to the establish. pittance is consumed, I know not what will be our ment of magazines for the winter. If these are next resource, as the commissary can give me no not formed before the roads are broken up by the certain information of more than 120 head of cattle weather, we shall certainly experience the same expected from Pennsylvania and about 150 from difficulties and distresses the ensuing winter which Massachusetts—I mean in time to supply our im. we did the last. Although the troops have, upon mediate wants.
every occasion hitherto, borne their wants with
unparalleled patience, it will be dangerous to trust Military coercion is no longer of any avail, as
too often to a repetition of the causes of discontent. nothing further can possibly be collected from the
I have the honor to be, with great respect, your country in which we are obliged to take a position, excellency's most obedient, without depriving the inhabitants of the last mor.
G. WASHINGTON. sel. This mode of subsisting, supposing the de.
State of Delaware. sired end could be answered by it, besides being in the highest degree distressing to individuals, is
FROM TIE PAPERS OF C.ESAR AND THOMAS RODXEY. attended with ruin to the morals and discipline of The editor's friend, Cæsar A. Rodney, of Delaware, the army. During the few days which we have well known as a member of congress from that been obliged to send out small parties to procure
state, attorney general of the United States, &c. provisions for themselves, the most eoormous ex.
favored him with an opportunity of examining & cesses have been committed.
great mass of papers left by his uncle, general Cz.
sar and his father, capt. Thomas Rodney, men It has been no inconsiderable support of our celebrated for their devotion to the cause of li. Cause, to have had it in our power to contrast the berty. Out of this extensive collection, the fol. conduct of our army with that of the enemy, and lowing articles have been gleaned, in the belief to convince the inhabitants that, while their rights that each of them may go to establish some
THE STAMP ACT CONGRESS.
point interesting to those who seek to ascertain, the town of Boston into the country, from whence the "principles and acts of the revolution.” the inhabitants of the town are daily supplied: this
EDITOR] pass is a narrow neck of land about 120 yards wide,
at which he has placed a number of troops and 28
cannon; that the country people passing and repas. Extract of a letter from Cæsar Rodney, to his browsing this place are suffered to be insulted by the ther Thomas, dated New York, Oct. 20, 1765.
sol jiery—and that the inhabitants feared, (from When I wrote to you last, 1 expected that con- those movements of the general), he had designs gress would have ended in eight or ten days from of apprehending and sending to England those per. that time; but, contrary to expectation, we have sons who have stood foremost in the great cause of li. not yet finisbed. You and many others are sur. berty-that in consequence of his conduct, and those prised, perhaps, to think we should sit so long, their suspicions, the inhabitants of Suffolk sent (by when the business of our meeting seemed only to a committee appointed for that purpose) an ad. be the petitioning the king, and remonstrating to dress to the general, enquiring the cause of his both houses of parliament: but when you consider stopping up and fortifying the pass, seizing and that we are petitioning and addressing that august (securing the magazines, &c. and their disapproba. body, the great legislature of the empire, for redress tion of his conduct and that they had no intention of grievances,-that, in order to point out those to assault either bim or bis soldiers;-but that, if grievances, it was likewise necessary to set forth the he continued to block up the pass, and thereby liberty we have and ought to enjoy (as freeborn En- prevent them of the only means of supplying the glishmen)according to the British constitution. This town with necessaries, they should look upon it as we are about to do by way of declaration, in the na. a commencement of hostilities: Upon the whole, ture of resolves, as a foundation to the petition and they sent express to the general congress here address; and was one of the most difficult taskslever for their instructions as to their future conduct. yet saw undertaken, as we had carefully to avoid any The congress met on that business this day, and infringement of the prerogative of the crown and have resolved thereon—which you will see in the the power of parliament-and yet in duty bound "Packet” of Monday, being ordered immediately fully to assert the rights and privileges of the colo. to be printed, as well that the general as the peo. nies. However, after arguing and debating two ple might know what they thought of the matter. weeks, on liberty, privileges, prerogative, &c. in I am yours, &c.
CAESAR RODNEY. an assembly of great abilities, we happily finished Capi. Thomas Rodney. them, and now have the petition and addresses be.
Philadelphia, Monday, Sept. 19, 1774.
, fore us, and expect to finish in three or four days.
Sir-Some time ago, I do not doubt but you, Pluiladelphia, Saturday, Sept. 17th, 1774. were all much alarmed, on a report that the king's SIR--By express, which arrived here yesterday ships were firing on the town of Boston. When from the committee of the town of Boston, to the that news came to this city, the bells were muffled, continental congress, we are informed the county of and kept ringing all that day: however, in a few Suffolk, of which the town of Boston is the capital, days after that news was contradicted here, and had entered into certain resolutions, a copy of hope by this time it is so with you. By some which was enclosed us, generally to the purport late very authentic accounts from Boston governof not suffering the commander in chief to exe- ment, to the gentlemen of that place now at the cute the act of parliament changing their govern congress, we are informed that there was about ment, by persuading, protecting and compelling three days between this report's passing through officers under the new regulation to resign, and by the Massachusetts and Connecticut governments, a refusal in jurymen to serve, &c. Tbat they have and its being contradicted: that when the expres. ordered all those able to bear arms to keep in ses went to contradict this false report, they found, readiness to defend their inherent rights, even in those two governments, in different parties, up. with loss of blood and treasure; that they are de. wards of fifty thousand men, well armed, actually termined not to injure the general or any of the on their march to Boston, for the relief of the inhaking's troops, unless compelled thereto by an at-bitants; and that every farmer who had a cart or tack made by the troops on them. They complain waggon, (and not able to bear arms), was with them, of the general seizing of the powder at Cambridge, loaded with provisions, ammunition, &c. all headwhich they say was private property; and also that ed by experienced officers, who had served in the he is now fortifying the only pass that leads from late American war: and that vast numbers more
were preparing to march. Upon the news being|nesday last, a ship sailed out of this port for Lon. contradicted, they returned peaceably to their sedon, in which Mr. C. was going passenger. A few veral places of abode—but not till they had sent days before she sailed, young Dewees, son of the some of their officers, from the different parties, to sheriff, went to pay Dr. K. so.ne money, and comBoston, to know the real situation of affairs there, ing suddenly into his room, found himn and C. toge. and to direct them what principal officers in the ther, with a bundle of papers before them, which different parts of the country they should hereaf. they hustled up in seeming confusion. This, with ter send espresses to, in case they should stand in K's. tory character, gave Dewees suspicion, and he need of their assistance. It is supposed by some accordingly informed a few of the committee, who of the friends of liberty, at Boston, that the alarm kept the matter secret, let the ship sail and the was set on foot by some of the friends to the minis passengers go down to Chester by land, to go on terial plan, in order to try whether there was that board. On Thursday evening, which was the day true valor in the people. If this was the case, 1 the passengers went, a small party was sent down suppose you will think with me, that, by this time, to Chester; they stayed there that night incog, and they can have no doubts remaining. Indeed, 1 saw the passengers go on board next morning. think it is proved by the general's own conduct; They then immediately pushed on board, seized for, ever since that, he has been fortifying himself, and examined Mr. C. who, in a little time, tol! which I imagine is more for his own security than them that there were several letters from Dr. to attack the inhabitants.
K. and Mr. B. and one from Mr. S. that he had I am yours, &c.
CESAR RODNEY. the charge of them, and was concerned with them Mr. Thomas Rodney, Dover.
in the plan they had concerted, but that the let.
ters were then in the custody of a woman down in (EXTRACT.]
the cabin, and that she had them concealed in a Philadelphia, Sept. 24, 1774. SIR-Mr. R. Penn is a great friend of liberty, and pocket sewed to the inside of her s—ft tail, where
in fact they soon after found them, and came back has treated the gentlemen delegates with the great est respect. More or less of them dine with him to town, (leaving C. as they had promised, upon his every day—and his brother wishes his station would making a discovery of the whole matter, on oath,
before Mr. Graham, at Chester), and then seized admit of his acting the same part: all these mat.
the authors. The letters were to lord Dartmouth ters are for your own private speculation, and not
aud other ministers of state, but under cover to for public view. By this you may see that some
Messrs. M'Cawley. The substance and design was people with you are mistaken in their politics, and
pressing their sending to Philadelphia five thou, you may also take for granted overy body here is
sand regulars, on which condition they would ennot well pleased with the coalition of the two bro.
gage five thousand more here to join them, provid. thers,
ed the royal standard should be also sent in, and I am, as usual, your friend and humble servant,
K. appointed to hear it; for that great numbers of CESAR RODNEY.
those who now wear cockades and uniform were Mr. Thomas Rodney.
hearty in the ministerial cause that the rest vere Philadelphia, Monday, Oct. 9, 1775, a pack of cowards--for that he (K.) had made above SIR-On Friday, about eleven o'clock at night, five thousand of them run, by snapping a single Dr. K. of this city was seized by order of the com. pistol at them, &c. They had with them, for the mittee of observation, for having wrote letters to use of the ministry, one of J. F's plans of Delaware England, injurious and destructive to us in the bay and river, whereon they had described the place American contest, and wicked with respect to this where the chevaux-de-frises were fixed. Besides city, and is now confined in jail, together with one these and many more villainous contrivances, they B. who came here with governor Skeen, Mr. C. an were taking home the out-lines for a print, to be apothecary, who was in partnership with S. and struck off in London, shewing K's late exhibition one Mr. S. all of whom were aiding the doctor in in the cart, going through the streets of Philadelbis plan, You must know K. has been a considera- phia with the mob, some of whom he undertakes ble time since marked out as a thorough-paced to particularly to describe, to wit: Bradford, &c. &c, ry; for wbich, together with his having insulted the many of whom were actually not there, and how he people, be was (since I came to town last) carted every now and then,by snapping his pistol,made them through the streets. But the offence for which he run, &c. His abuse of the congress, committees, &c, is now confine , is thus circumstanced: On Wed-|in his letters), is intolerable-such as rebels, &c.
After the committee of safety had examined the.n; tion are completel, I shall be content-nor shall and the contents of the letters, they sent a pilot desire to have any land in politics, unless at any boat down the river to overtake the ship, to bring time liberty be encroached upon. Nothing but the up C. and to search the box of letters, and to bring great cause of liberty, which we have been em. all of them that they supposed to be from or to barked in, could have induced me, (who have an insuspicious persons. This boat returned Sunday creasing family and so little for them), to have afternoon, brought C. and put him in jail, and also spent so much of my time and money in public ser.
THOMAS RODNEY. brought a number of letters belonging to and wrote
Hon. Cæsar Rodney, in congress. by other persons. The committee of safety has been sitting on these affairs all this day, but I have been so closely confined to congress to-day, that 1 Extract of a letter from col. John Husiect,* to gènes don't yet know what they have done, or what others
ral Cesar Rodney, dated camp near Mount Wash
ington, 5th Oct. 1776. are accused. Yours, &c.
CAESAR RODNEY. SIR-I know you have already sacrificed a large Mr. Thomas Rodney.
share of private property to the evil and unthank
ful; in this you resemble the Supreme Manager, Dover, August 30, 1776.
who makes his sun to shine on the evil and the good, SIR-1 received your letters by last post, and
and, bad as times are, you have a few friends still the one preceding and one mentioned in that. of the latter character. And, my dear sir, who can am pleased with your resolution mentioned in your better afford it? Providence has blessed you with last, as I should be sorry to hear that the unsteady a fortune to your prudence inexhaustible, by which passions which govern the people, should at any you are enabled to live where you please, and to time give the least shock to that virtue which hath keep the first company where you do live, and all so long and necessarily supported American liber. his with few drawbacks upon it. How then, can ty. Though the people in a popular government
you lay out a part of it to more noble purposes, often put away good men for bad ones, and thoughtban in serving your country, guarding her rights such a change could not be more dangerous at any and privileges, and forcing wretches to be happy time than the present, yet I look on the present
against their will? In this you will act as an agent change with us as an example which favors liberty. of the Sovereign Goodness, and co-operate willa It the people will not continually support those Heaven to save a wretched race; and though you men, who have served them faithfully at all bazards,
may not effect the righteous purpose, the testi. it cannot be supposed that they will long support mony of an approving concience, the applause of those men who, in opposition to the public weal, conscious virtue, and the approbation of all good bave pursued their own private interest only. These beings, will more than balance the sacrifice. A men by a violent exertion of the influence of the thousand things might be urged to the same purmagistracy, and descending to assert the most base,
pose. But a word to the wise. low and infamous falsehoods, have succeeded for once, because the people were blinded that they Allen's Town, in Jersey, 12 miles from Princet07. could not see their true interest. But be assured,
20 do. from Brunswick, Dec. 30th 1776. they that set them up will pull them down again. SIR-I wrote you a long letter on the 24tb, which
I had no opportunity of sending, and left it in my After devoting ten years to the service of your
trunk at Mr. Cose's, two miles from Bristol; it coh. country and public business, to the great prejudice of your own private interest, you certainly deserve tains the news to that time, which I cannot repeat
here. Oa the 25th inst. in the evening, we received to enjoy the sweets of retirement, which is the
orders to be at Sbamony ferry as soon as possible. happiest life in this state; and you will have this re.
We were there according to orders in two hours, flection, that after the time you mention, that you
and met the rifle-men, who were the first from have accomplished the establishment of American
Bristol; we were ordered from thence to Dunk's liberty; and that you could not do any thing that
ferry, on the Delaware, and the whole army of would add to the honor already acquired: but I
about 2000 men followed, as soon as the artillery believe the people will not let you execute this
got up. The three companies of Philadelphia in. design-they will soon be tired of those who they
fantry and mine were formed into a body, under bave now set up and will begin to call again upon
the command of captain Henry, (myself second in those men whose virtue bath been proved to the utmest. When the great matters which you men-i *Killed at Princeton.
command), which were embarked immediately to it was madness to attempt, for that it would knock cover the landing of the other troops. We landed up all our brave men, not one of whom had yet with great difficulty through the ice, and formed gave out, but every one will suppose were much on the ferry shore, about 200 yards from the river. fatigued. They then sent off a party who were It was as severe a night as ever I saw, and after fresh, but they knocked up before they got up with two battalions were landed, the storm increased so them, and came back and met us at this town much, and the river was so full of ice, that it was next morning. They surrounded a house where impossible to get the artillery over; for we had to there was sis tories... took three of them...one got walk 100 yards on the ice to get on shore. Gen. off--and one who run and would not stop, was shot Cadwallader therefore ordered the whole to retreat dead. They gave him warning first by calling, again, and we had to stand at least six hours under and at last shot two bullets over his head, but be arms—first, to cover the landing and till all the still persisted, and the next two shot; one bullet rest had retreated again.--and, by this time, the went through his arm and one through bis heart. storm of wind, hail, rain and snow, with the ice, The enemy have fled before us in the greatest was so bad, that some of the infantry could not panic that ever was known; we heard this moment get back till next day. This design was to bave that they have Aed from Princeton, and that they surprised the enemy at Black Horse and Mount were hard pressed by Washington. Never were Holley, at the same time that Washington sur- men in higher spirits than our whole army is; none prised them at Trenton; and bad we succeeded are sick, and all are determined to extirpate them in getting over, we should have finished all our from the Jersey, but I believe the enemy's fears troubles. Washington took 910 prisoners, with 6 will do it before we get up with them. The pieces of fine artillery, and all their baggage in Hessians, from the general to the common soldier, Trenton. The next night I received orders to be curse and imprecate the war, and swear they were in Bristol before day: we were there accordingly, sent here to be slaughtered; that they never will and about 9 o'clock began to embark one mile leave New-York again, till they sail for Europe. above Bristol, and about 3 o'clock in the afternoon Jersey will be the most whiggish colony on the got all our troops and artillery over, consisting of continent: the very Quakers declare for taking up about 3000 men, and began our march to Burling- arms. You cannot imagine the distress of this ton-the infantry, flanked by the rifle-men, making country. They have stripped every body almost the advanced guard. We got there about 9 o'clock without distinction--even of all their clothes, and and took possession of the town, but found the have beat and abused men, women and children, enemy had made precipitate retreat the day be. in the most cruel manner ever beard of. We have fore, bad as the weather was, in a great panic. The taken a number of prisoners, in our route, Hessians whole infantry and rifle-men were then ordered to and British, to the amount of about 20. It seems set out that night and make a forced march to likely, through the blessing of Providence, that Bordentown, (which was about 11 miles), which we shall retake Jersey again without the loss of a they did, and took possession of the town about man, except one gen. Washington lost at Trenton. 9 o'clock, with a large quantity of the enemy's The enemy seem to be bending their way to Amboy stores, which they had not time to carry off. We with all speed, but I hope we shall come up with stayed there till the army came up; and the gene. the Princeton baggage yet, and also get a sbare ral finding the enemy were but a few miles ahead, of their large stores at Brunswick. I hope, if I ordered the infantry to proceed to a town called live, to see the conquest of Jersey, and set off Croswick's, four miles from Bordentown, and they home again in two weeks. Some of my men have were followed by one of the Philadelphia and one complained a little, but not to say sick; they are of the New England battalions. We got there all now well here. about 8 o'clock, and at about 10, (after we were
THOMAS RODNEY. all in quarters), were informed that the enemy's Brig. gen. Caesar Rodney, esq. baggage was about 16 miles from us, under a guard of 300 men. Some of the militia colonels applied
Dover, July 20th, 1779. to the infantry to make a forced march that night DEAR BIR-You will readily grant that it is evident and overhaul them. We had then been on duty four from the low credits of our money, that the state nights and days, making forced marches, without six of our finances is bad enough yet I think congress hours sleep in the whoie time; whereupon the infantry is too much alarmed on this head, and is thereby oficers of all the companies unanimously declared urged into measures that still tend to depress the