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queen, our said son king Henry, and the council, may ordain. The cities, towns, and municipalities, will also swear to obey and diligently follow whatever orders may particularly affect them. Instantly on our decease the whole of the subjects of our kingdom shall swear to become liegemen and vassals to our said son king Henry, and obey him as the true king of France, and, without any opposition or dispute, shall receive him as such, and never pay obedience to any other as king or regent of France but to our said son king Henry, unless our said son should lose life or limb, or be attacked by a portal disease, or suffer diminution in person, state, honour, or goods. But should they know of any evil designs plotted against him, they will counteract them to the utmost of their power, and give him information thereof by letters or messages.

“ Item, it is agreed that whatever conquests our said son may make from our disobedient subjects shall belong to us, and their profits shall be applied to our use ; but should any of these conquests appertain to any noble who at this moment is obedient to us, and who shall swear that he will faithfully defend them, they shall be punctually restored to him as to the lawful owner.-Item, it is agreed that all ecclesiastics within the duchy of Normandy and the realm of France, obedient to us, to our said son, and attached to the party of the duke of Burgundy, who shall swear faithfully to keep and observe all the articles of this treaty, shall peaceably enjoy their said benefices in the duchy of Normandy, and in all other parts of our realm.-Item, all universities, colleges, churches, and monasteries, within the duchy of Normandy or elsewhere, subject to us, and in time to come to our said son king Henry, shall freely enjoy all rights and privileges claimed by them, saving the rights of the crown and of individuals. — Item, whenever the crown of France shall devolve by our decease on our said son king Henry, the duchy of Normandy, and all the other conquests which he may have made within the kingdom of France, shall thenceforward remain under the obedience and jurisdiction of the monarchy of France. Item, it is agreed that our said son king Henry, on coming to the throne of France, will make ample compensation to all of the Burgundian party who may have been deprived of their inheritances by his conquest of the duchy of Normandy, from lands to be conquered from our rebellious subjects, without any diminution from the crown of France. Should the estates of such not have been disposed of by our said son, he will instantly have the same restored to their proper owners.

“ Item, during our life all ordinances, edicts, pardons and privileges, must be written in our name, and signed with our seal ; but as cases may arise which no human wisdom can foresee, it may be proper that our said son king Henry should write letters in his own name, and in such cases it shall be lawful for him so to do, for the better security of our person, and the maintaining good government; and he will then command and order in our name, and in his own, as regent of the realm, according as the exigency of the occasion may require. — Item, during our life our said son king Henry will neither sign nor style himself king of France, but will most punctually abstain therefrom so long as we shall live.-Item, it is agreed that during our life we shall write, call and style our said son king Henry as follows : Our very dear son Henry, king of England, heir to France ;' and in the Latin tongue, Noster præcharissimus filius Henricus rex Angliæ hæres Franciæ.

“ Item, our said son king Henry will not impose any taxes on our subjects, except for a sufficient cause, or for the general good of the kingdom, and according to the approved laws and usages observed in such cases.-Item, that perfect concord and peace may be preserved between the two kingdoms of France and England henceforward, and that obstacles tending to a breach thereof (which God forbid) may be obviated, it is agreed that our said son king Henry, with the aid of the three estates of each kingdom, shall labour most earnestly to devise the surest means to prevent this treaty from being infringed : that on our said son succeeding to the throne of France, the two crowns shall ever after remain united in the same person,—that is to say, in the person of our said son, and at his decease, in the persons of those of his heirs who shall successively follow him : that from the time our said son shall become king of France the two kingdoms shall no longer be divided, but the sovereign of the one shall be the sovereign of the other, and to each kingdom its own separate laws and customs shall be most religiously preserved.--Item, thenceforward, therefore, all hatreds and rancour that may have existed between the two nations of England and France shall be put an end to, and mutual love and friendship subsist in their stead : they shall enjoy perpetual peace, and assist each other against all who may any way attempt to injure either of them. They will carry on a friendly intercourse and commerce, paying the accustomed duties that each kingdom has established.-Item, when the confederates and allies of the kingdoms of France and of England shall have had due notice of this treaty of peace, and within eight months after shall have signified their intentions of adhering to it, they shall be comprehended and accounted as the allies of both kingdoms, saving always the rights of our crown and of that of our said son king Henry, and without any hindrance to our subjects from seeking that redress they may think just from any individuals of these our allies.

“Item, it is agreed that our said son king Henry, with the advice of our well-beloved Philip duke of Burgundy, and others of the nobles of our realm, assembled for this purpose, shall provide for the security of our person conformably to our royal estate and dignity, in such wise that it may redound to the glory of God, to our honour, and to that of the kingdom of France and our subjects; and that all persons employed in our personal service, noble or otherwise, and in any charge concerning the crown, shall be Frenchmen born in France, and in such places where the French language is spoken, and of good and decent character, loyal subjects, and well suited to the offices they shall be appointed to.— Item, we will that our residence be in some of the principal places within our dominions, and not elsewhere.

“ Item, considering the horrible and enormous crimes that have been perpetrated in our kingdom of France, by Charles, calling himself dauphin of Vienne, it is agreed that neither our said son king Henry, nor our well beloved Philip duke of Burgundy, shall enter into any treaty of peace or concord with the said Charles, without the consent of us three and of our council, and the three estates of the realm for that purpose assembled.

"Item, it is agreed, that in addition to the above articles being sealed with our great seal, we shall deliver to our said son king Henry, confirmatory letters from our said consort the queen, from our said well-beloved Philip duke of Burgundy, and from others of our blood royal, the great lords, barons, and cities, and towns under our obedience, and from all from whom our said son king Henry may wish to have them. Item, in like manner, our said son king Henry, on his part, shall deliver to us, besides the treaty itself sealed with his great seal, ratifications of the same froin his well-beloved brothers, the great lords of his realm, and from all the principal cities and towns of his kingdom, and from any others from whom we may choose to demand them.

“In regard to the above articles, we, Charles king of France, do most solemnly, on the word of a king, promise and engage punctually to observe them; and we swear on the holy Evangelists, personally touched by us, to keep every article of this peace inviolate, and to make all our subjects do the same, without any fraud or deceit whatever,--so that none of our heirs may in time to come infringe them, but that they may be for ever stable and firm. In confirmation whereof, we have affixed our seal to these presents.

“ Given at Troyes, 21st day of May, in the year 1420, and of our reign the 40th. Sealed at Paris with our signet, in the absence of the great seal.” Signed by the king in his grand council. Countersigned, “ J. MILLET.”

CHAPTER CCXXIV.-THE KINGS OF FRANCE AND OF ENGLAND DEPART FROM TROYES WITH

THEIR QUEENS, IN COMPANY WITH THE DUKE OF BURGUNDY.—THE SIDGES OF SENS

AND OF MONTEREAU. AFTER the conclusion of the treaty of peace, and the feasts and ceremonies of the marriage, the two kings of France and of England, accompanied by their queens, the duke of Burgundy, and the whole army, departed from the city of Troyes and the adjacent parts. They marched toward the town of Sens in Burgundy, which was occupied by a party of the dauphin's men, and, when near, blockaded it completely ; so that at the end of twelve days the

ptista de an attaentrance town

garrison, seeing no hope of succour, surrendered it to the king of France on having their lives and fortunes spared, and liberty for such as pleased to depart in safety, with the exception of those who had been concerned in the murder of duke John of Burgundy, should any such be found within the town. The inhabitants, and those men at arms who should remain, were to take oaths of obedience to the king of France. The greater part of them, however, made oath to the English, and pretended to wear the red cross, notwithstanding which they again turned to the dauphin. When the town of Sens had been re-garrisoned, the besiegers departed for Montereau-faut-Yonne. During their stay at Sens, master Eustace de Lactre, chancellor of France, died there : he had been for a long time the principal adviser of the duke of Burgundy. Master John le Clerc, president of the parliament, was appointed chancellor in his stead.

At the beginning of the month of June, the king of England and the duke of Burgundy formed the siege of the town and castle of Montereau, and were for some time employed before it with their engines to batter down the walls and gates. The governor of the place for the dauphin was sir Pierre de Guitry*, having under his command five hundred combatants, who made a gallant defence, killing and wounding many of the assailants : among the first was sir Butor bastard of Croy, a valiant knight, and expert man-at-arms. This, however, did not avail them much, for on St. John Baptist's day, some English and Burgundians assembled without orders from their prince, and made an attack on the town at several places at once, and continued it so long, that they forced an entrance into it, without meeting with any great resistance from the besieged. They then advanced toward the castle, whither the greater part of the Dauphinois had retreated, and drove the remainder before them, not, however, without loss, for they had hastened with such impatience that many fell into the ditches and were drowned, and from sixteen to twenty were made prisoners, the most part gentlemen. By this conquest, the besieged were more alarmed than before. The king of England quartered a large detachment from his army in the town, fronting the castle ; and when this had been done, some of the duke of Burgundy's people, by the direction of the women of the town, went to the spot where duke John had been buried, and instantly placed over the grave a mourning cloth, and lighted tapers at each end of it. On the morrow, by orders of the duke of Burgundy, several noble knights and esquires of his household were sent thither to raise the corpse and to examine it. On their arrival, they had the body dug up, but in truth it was a melancholy sight, for he had still on his pourpoint and drawers; and there was not a man present that could refrain from weeping. The body was again put into a leaden coffin, filled with salt and spices, and carried to Burgundy, to be interred in the convent of the Carthusians without Dijon, which was founded by his father duke Philip, by whose side it was placed, according to the orders of the duke his son.

While the siege of Montereau was carrying on, Charles king of France and his ministers sent copies of the treaty of peace to Paris, and to all the bailiwicks, provostships, and seneschalships of the realm, that it might be proclaimed in the places where proclamations had been usually made. After the capture of the town of Montereau, the king of England and the duke of Burgundy decamped with the army, and, crossing the Seine by a newlyerected bridge, encamped between the two rivers Seine and Yonne, and more effectually surrounded the castle with their warlike engines to batter it down. The king of England sent all the prisoners from the town under a good escort, to hold a parley with those in the castle, from the ditches, to prevail on the governor to surrender the place. When within hearing they fell on their knees, and pitifully implored him to surrender, for by so doing he would save their lives, and that he could not much longer hold out, considering the large force that was before it. The governor replied, that they must do the best they could, for that he would not surrender. The prisoners, having no longer hopes of life, asked to speak with their wives, or friends and relatives, that were in the castle ; and they took leave of each other with many tears and lamentations. When they were brought back to the army,

• Q. If not William de Chaumont, lord of Guitry, and grand-master of waters and forests, in 1424, by Charles counsellor and chainberlain to the king, and captain of VII. His son Charles was killed at the battle of Verneuil Sens and Auxerre ? He was made count de Chaumont, in 1423.

the king of England ordered a gallows to be erected, and had them all hanged in sight of those within the castle. The king likewise hanged a running footman, who always followed him when he rode, holding the bridle of his horse. He was a great favourite of the king's, but having killed a knight in a quarrel, was thus punished.

The castle did not hold out more than eight days after this, when the governor offered to surrender it on condition that the lives and fortunes of the garrison should be spared, and that they should march freely away, with the exception of any who had been concerned in the murder of duke John of Burgundy, who were to remain until the king's pleasure should be known. The lord de Guitry was much blamed by both parties for having suffered the prisoners to be put to death, and holding out so few days after. He was also accused of being concerned in the murder of the duke of Burgundy, but offered to prove his innocence by combating a gentleman of duke Philip's household called William de Biere. In the end, Guitry exculpated himself, and nothing further was done. He carried away his garrison to the dauphin. So soon as the king of England had re-garrisoned and supplied the town and castle of Montereau with stores and provision, he made preparations to lay siege to the town of Melun, and while these things were passing, the king and queen of France and the queen of England resided at Bray-sur-Seine, with their households.

CHAPTER CCXXV.-THE TOWN OF VILLENEUVE-LE-ROI IS TAKEN BY SCALADO.-THE SIEGE

OF THE PONT ST. ESPRIT.-THE CROISADE UNDERTAKEN BY THE POPE, -AND MN Y

OTHER MATTERS. In these days, the town of Villeneuve-le-Roi, seated on the river Yonne, was surprised by scalado, by a party of Burgundians ; in which place were killed and taken many who supported the dauphin's party. At this time also the duke of Bedford joined his brother the king of England with eight hundred men-at-arms and two thousand archers. They were joyfully received by the king, his brothers, and the duke of Burgundy, whose army was greatly strengthened by this reinforcement. The dauphin was not idle on his side : he had marched a considerable force into Languedoc, and laid siege to the town of the Pont du St. Esprit, on the Rhône, which was garrisoned by the prince of Orange's men for the duke of Burgundy. He pointed against it many engines that had been sent him from Avignon and Provence, and pressed the place so much that it surrendered. In like manner he subdued the greater part of the towns and castles in Languedoc that were attached to the Burgundian party through the influence of the prince of Orange, and having placed therein sufficient garrisons and expert commanders, he returned to Bourges in Berry, where he assembled a very large army, to enable him to oppose the king of England and the duke of Burgundy, who he knew were preparing to conquer all towns and castles that were attached to him.

At this time, also, the holy father the pope ordered a croisade to be undertaken against Bohemia, the leaders of which were, the archbishop of Cologne, the bishop of Liege, the archbishop of Treves, the bishop of Mentz, count Louis du Rhin, and many other great lords of upper Germany, and from the adjoining parts. They entered the country near Prague, where they committed great devastations, and took a strong castle called Nansonne *, and the well-fortified town of Culhue *, as well as some others. However, great numbers of this army quitted it and returned home, because it seemed to them that their leaders were too avaricious. The cardinal duke of Bar, with his nephew, Réné d'Anjou, son of bis sister and the late king Louis of Sicily, whom he had declared his heir to the duchy of Bar, having already given him the marquisate du Pont, besieged with a powerful force the town and castle of Ligny-en-Barrois, the principal town of that country, because John of Luxembourg had not performed his duty as guardian to the young count de St. Pol, by doing homage, neither had it been done by duke John of Brabant, brother to the count. Those within the town were partisans of the Burgundy faction, while the cardinal and his country were of the

* I have looked into L'Enfant's “Guerre des Hussites,'' but cannot find mention made of these places, or any of similar sound.

opposite party. When the siege had been continued some time, the place submitted to the obedience of the cardinal, who placed therein his own garrison and officers. Nevertheless, by some negotiations between the parties, the town, castle, and country, were afterward restored to the young count de St. Pol, who again garrisoned it with his own people.

CHAPTER CCXXVI.—THE TOWN OF MELUN IS CLOSELY BESIEGED.- THE CAPTURE OF THE

COUNT DE CONVERSAN.—THE DEPARTURE OF THE YOUNG KING OF SICILY FOR ROME.

We must now return to the kings of France and England, and the duke of Burgundy, who having conquered Montereau advanced to Melun to lay siege thereto, as it held out for the dauphin. They surrounded it on all sides with their army; and the king of France, accompanied by the two queens, went to fix his residence at Corbeil. King Henry, with his brothers, the duke of Bavaria, surnamed le Rouge, his brother-in-law*, and his other princes, were encamped toward the Gâtinois; duke Philip of Burgundy, with all his men, the earl of Huntingdon, and some other English captains, were encamped on the opposite side toward Brie. The besiegers exerted themselves to the utmost to annoy the enemy, and pointed various engines of war, cannons, bombards, and such like, to batter down the walls of the town, which was commanded by the lord de Barbasan, a noble vassal, subtle, expert, and renowned in arms. He had with him sir Pierre de Bourbon, lord de Préaulx, and another of the name of Bourgeois, with a garrison of from six to seven hundred combatants. They showed every appearance of making a vigorous defence against all the attacks of the besiegers; but, notwithstanding their exertions, the town was approached by the enemy to the very walls, by means of mines and other subtleties of war, so that their fortifications were much damaged. On the other side of the town, the duke of Burgundy, by an unexpected and well-concerted attack, gained a strong bulwark which the besieged had erected without the ditches, and which sorely annoyed the Burgundians; the duke, after the capture, fortified it against the town, and posted guards in it night and day. A bridge of boats was also thrown over the Seine, by which a free communication was opened between the two armies ; and the king of England had his camp strongly surrounded with palisades and ditches, that he might not be surprised by the enemy, leaving sufficient openings, fortified with barriers, which he had carefully guarded by day and by night. In like manner did the duke of Burgundy and the English that were encamped with him.

In this state did the siege continue for eighteen weeks, during which some few sallies, but in no very considerable force, were made by the besieged. However, a valiant English captain called sir Philip Lis, a notable gentleman from Burgundy, sir Everard de Vienne, and several more, lost their lives. As the besiegers continued their attacks incessantly, great damage was done to the walls, which those in the town repaired as well as they could with casks filled with earth, and other sufficient materials. The king of England had a mine carried on with such success that it was very nearly under the walls, when the besieged, having suspicions of what was intended, formed a countermine, so that great part of the enemy's works fell in, and a warm engagement with lances took place. The English erected a strong barrier on their side of the mine, at which the king and the duke of Burgundy engaged two of the Dauphinois with push of pike, which was afterward continued by several knights and esquires of each party. Then the following persons of the duke's household were created knights, Jean de Hornes, the lord de Baussigines, Robert de Mannes, and some others.

While this siege lasted, the king of England paid frequent visits to his queen at Corbeil, with whom was the duchess of Clarence and other noble ladies from England. When the town had been thus blockaded on all sides, king Charles was brought thither to afford the besieged an opportunity of surrendering it to the king of France, their natural lord; but to

* Louis, called also Barbatus, second son of the emperor son, Rupert, who died childless. Duke Louis afterwards Rupert, elector-palatine of the Rhine, married Blanche, married again, and had a son, who succeeded to tho daughter of Henry IV., by whom he had issue only one electorate.

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