the summons made them they replied, that they would cheerfully throw open their gates to him alone, but that they would never pay obedience to the king of England, the ancient deadly enemy of France. Nevertheless, king Charles remained some time in the camp under the care and management of his son-in-law the king of England, -not indeed with his former state and pomp, for in comparison of past times it was a poor sight now to see him. He was accompanied by the queen of France, grandly attended by ladies and damsels; and they resided about a month in a house which king Henry had erected for them near to his tents, and at a distance from the town, that the cannon might not annoy them. Every day, at sunrise and nightfall, eight or ten clarions, and divers other instruments, played most melodiously for an hour before the king of France's tent.

In truth, the king of England was more magnificently attended during this siege than at any other during his reign, and was personally very active to accomplish his enterprise. While these things were passing, Pierre de Luxembourg, count de Conversan and de Brienne, returning from this siege to his county of Brienne, and escorted by about sixty men-at-arms, was met by a party of Dauphinois from Meaux, in Brie, namely Pierron de Lupel, and others; and they, being superior in numbers, carried him and his men prisoners to Meaux, where he remained until the king of England besieged that town, as you shall hear. At this period, the queen of Sicily, widow to king Louis of happy memory, granted permission, but not without heavy sighs, to her eldest son Louis to go to Rome to be crowned king of Sicily by the hands of the pope. She gave him into the charge of the Florentines and Genoese, who had entered the port of Marseilles with fifteen galleys, trusting not entirely to their loyalty, but demanding as hostages for her son eight of the most noble barons of Naples, who had come to fetch him by orders from the cities, chief towns, and principal noblemen of the realm. This they had done from hatred to their queen, wife to sir James de Bourbon, count de la Marche. She had detained her husbaud in prison, in consequence of her quarrels with him and his ministers. The young king Louis having embarked at Marseilles, which was a dependence of his mother's, sailed to Rome, and there solemnly received his kingdom from the hands of the pope, although he was not then crowned. He was thenceforward styled king Louis, as his late father had been.



During the siege of Melun, the castles hereafter mentioned, namely, the bastile of St. Anthony, the Louvre, the palace of Neele, and the castle of Vincennes, were, by orders from the king of France, with the consent of the duke of Burgundy and the Parisians, put into the hands of king Henry, who sent his brother the duke of Clarence to take the command of them, and constituted him governor of Paris. He dismissed all the French garrisons who had hitherto guarded them, and placed therein none but English. The government of Paris was taken from the count de St. Pol, who was, soon after, sent with master Pierre de Marigny and others as commissioners from the king of France to Picardy, to receive the oaths from the three estates and principal towns in that country, in order that the peace lately concluded between the two kings might be strictly observed, and that they might in future faithfully obey the king of France, and the king of England as regent of the realm. These commissioners received the following instructions from the king of France; and they were to bring back the oaths signed by the three estates and magistrates of the chief towns.

“Charles, by the grace of God king of France, to our very dear and well-beloved cousins the count de St. Pol, the bishop of Terouenne, and John de Luxembourg, and to our very dear and well-beloved the bishop of Arras, the vidame of Amiens, the lord de la Viefville, the governors of Arras and of Lille, master Pierre de Marigny, our advocate in parliament, and master George d’Ostende, our secretary, health and greeting. We having lately, after due deliberation, and by the advice of our consort the queen, and of our very dear and wellbeloved son Philip duke of Burgundy, the prelates, the nobles and commonalties of our said

kingdom, concluded a peace, to the great advantage of ourself and of our realm, with our very dear son Henry king of England, heir and regent of France, for ourself and for the kingdoms of France and of England; which peace has been solemnly sworn to by us, our consort the queen, our son of Burgundy, and by the nobles, barons, prelates, churchmen, and commonalties of the realm. We therefore order that all persons within our kingdom who have not as yet taken the oaths for the due observance of this peace do swear to the same without dela.y ; and, confiding in your great loyalty, prudence, and diligence, we command, by these presents, that you, and each of you, do instantly visit all the cities, large towns, castles, and other notable places within the bailiwicks of Amiens, Tournay, Lille, Douay, Arras, and in the county of Ponthieu, and within their different dependencies and jurisdictions ; and that you do summon before you all whom you shall think proper, of prelates and other dignitaries of the church, nobles, and common people, and that you do publicly cause to be read to them the whole of the articles of the said peace; which done, you will strictly enjoin them in our name to swear, in your presence, on the holy evangelists, to the due observance of the peace, the following oaths, under pain of being reputed rebels, and disobedient to us :

“First, you shall swear obedience and loyalty to the high and mighty prince Henry king of England, as governor and regent of France, and that you will faithfully obey all his orders in whatever shall tend to the preservation of the public welfare and of the realm, subject at the present to the very high and potent prince Charles king of France our sovereign lord.-Secondly, that after the decease of our said sovereign lord king Charles, you will, conformably to the articles of the peace, become liege men and loyal subjects to the very high and mighty prince Henry king of England, and to his heirs ; that you will honour and acknowledge him as king of France without opposition, as your true king, and obey him as such, promising henceforward to obey none other as king of France, excepting king Charles at present on the throne. Thirdly, you will not afford assistance or advice to any conspiracies, that may tend to the death of the said king Henry, to the loss of his limbs, or to the diminution of his estate or dignity ; but should you know of any such conspiracies, you will prevent them from taking effect as much as shall in you lie, and you shall inform the said king of England thereof by messages or letters. And you will swear generally to observe punctually all the different articles of this treaty of peace between our said lord king Charles and Henry king of England, without fraud, deception, or mental reservation whatever, and that you will resist and oppose any one who may any way attempt to infringe them.

“ These oaths we will and command all our vassals of every rank and condition to take, and swear to the maintaining the peace without infringing it in the smallest degree. You and your clerks will punctually transmit to us certificates of the above oaths having been solemnly taken in your presence. And we ordain that any number of you from nine to three persons be a sufficient court to receive such oaths, for which these presents shall be your authority. We order and command all our bailiffs, and others our officers of justice, to obey your directions, and to afford you every aid and advice that you may require. And because it may be necessary to make public these our commands in different parts, we will that as much faith be placed in the copies under our royal seal as in the original.

“Given at our siege of Melun the 23d day of July, in the year of Grace 1420, and of our reign the 40th.” Countersigned, “Marc.”

The count de St. Pol and the other commissioners in consequence of these orders left Paris, and were some days in journeying to Amiens, that they might avoid the ambushes of the Dauphinois. They were kindly received in Amiens, and, having shown their powers, the inhabitants took the oaths. They thence went to Abbeville, St. Ricquier, Montrieul, Boulogne, St. Omer, and other places, where they duly obeyed and punctually executed the orders they had received.



TIMES. The count de St. Pol, soon after his return from Picardy, was sent for in haste by the greater part of the nobility and principal towns in Brabant, and also by the countess of Hainault, wife to the duke of Brabant. Laying aside all other matters he instantly complied; and on his arrival in that country he was immediately declared governor of the whole duchy by those who had sent for him, instead of his brother, whose conduct had been so disagreeable that they would no longer obey him as their duke. The count kept his state in Brussels, and began to make many new regulations to the great displeasure of those who governed the duke of Brabant, who was at that time absent from Brussels. His ministers, however, brought him back with a large force of men-at-arms, but the inhabitants would not open their gates to him until he had promised his brother the count de St. Pol, that he would maintain peace with them. He was scarcely entered when those who managed him would not permit his brother or the principal nobles to approach him but with difficulty and with suspicion. This conduct irritated them so much that they, in conjunction with the count de St. Pol, resolved to provide a remedy, and assembling in numbers, they arrested all the duke's ministers, the principal of whom was the damoiseau de Hainsbercq. · The most part of these prisoners were beheaded, namely, sir John de Condemberch, John Scoccard, Everard le Duc, Henry le Duc, sir Henry Hutun, master William Hutun, sir John Hutun, sir William Pipepoye, sir William Moieux, the youth William Asche, John du Vert, sir Everard Sherchos, John Clautin Grolier, and some others. The duke was put under the government of the nobles of Brabant, with the approbation of his brother the count de St. Pol, and the three estates of the country, and ever after unanimity and peace reigned among them. In these days the Dauphinois quartered at Guise, in Tierrache and the adjoining parts, assembled a body of about five hundred combatants, and suddenly marched to the town of Beaurevoir, belonging to sir John de Luxembourg, wherein he resided, and to the villages near, whence they carried off many of the peasants and some booty, with which they speedily returned to their own quarters. Sir John was very indignant at this conduct, and having collected a large body of men-at-arms and archers from various parts, he conducted them to the county of Guise and overran the whole of it, seizing or destroying all they found in the open country, in revenge for the insult of the Dauphinois. They made a rich plunder of peasants, cattle, sheep, pigs, horses, and of all that had not been secured in castles, which they brought off and then separated to their different homes. During these tribulations, Philip count de Vertus, brother to the duke of Orleans, a prisoner in England, and also to the count d'Angoulême, died at Blois : he had the government of all the estates of his brother in France ; and the dauphin was much weakened in aid and advice by his death. His two brothers bitterly lamented his loss, as well from fraternal affection as because he faithfully managed their concerns in France during their imprisonment.


JOIGNY.—THE SURRENDER OF THE TOWN AND CASTLE OF MELUN. We will now return to the siege of Melun, at which were present, as you have heard, the kings of France and of England and the duke of Burgundy. The lord de l'Isle-Adam, though marshal of France, was sent by king Charles with a large force to garrison Joigny, and make head against the Dauphinois, who were committing great depredations in those parts. When he had remained there some time, and had properly posted his men, he returned to the siege of Melun. He had caused to be made a surcoat of light grey, in which he waited on the king of England relative to some affairs touching his office. When he had made the proper salutations, and had said a few words respecting his business, king Henry, by way of joke, said, “What, l'Isle-Adam ! is this a dress for a marshal of France ?" to which he replied, looking the king in the face, “Sire, I have had it thus made to cross the Seine in the boats.” The king added, “How dare you thus look a prince full in the face when you are speaking to him ?” “Sire," answered l’Isle-Adam, “such is the custom of us Frenchmen ; and if any one addresses another, whatever may be his rank, and looks on the ground, he is thought to have evil designs, and cannot be an honest man, since he dare not look in the face of him to whom he is speaking.” The king replied, “Such is not our custom.” After these and some few more words, the lord de l'Isle-Adam took leave of the king and departed from his presence, but he plainly perceived that he was not in his good graces. He was, shortly after, deprived of his office of marshal of France; and another worse event befel him, for he was also detained prisoner by king Henry, as you will see hereafter.

During this siege of Melun, a severe epidemical distemper afflicted the English army, and caused a very great mortality. On the other hand, the prince of Orange and many others quitted the army of the duke of Burgundy, which weakened him so much that he sent in haste orders to sir John de Luxembourg, who commanded for the king in Picardy, to assemble as many men-at-arms and archers as he could, and bring them to the siege of Melun. Sir John instantly obeyed this order, and, marching his men through Peronne and over the bridge of St. Maixence, advanced toward Melun. The besieged, seeing this body marching in battle array, concluded it was succour coming to their aid, and began to ring all the bells in the town, and to cry from their walls to the besiegers that they must now hasten to saddle their horses, for they would speedily be forced to decamp. They were soon undeceived, and with grief descended from the ramparts, having no longer hopes of assistance from the dauphin, or from any other quarter. Sir John de Luxembourg and his men were quartered at the town of Brie-Comte-Robert, where they remained until after the surrender of Melun. In the meantime the king of France despatched letters to many of the principal towns of the kingdom, commanding them to send commissioners to meet him at Paris on the fourth of January, to confer with the nobility and clergy on the state of affairs.

The garrison in Melun were aware how dangerously they were now situated, without hope of succour; for they had frequently made the dauphin acquainted with their situation, and how they had for a long time, from famine, been forced to live on dogs, cats, horses, and other food unbecoming Christians, requiring him, at the same time, to perform his promises of sending them assistance, and to relieve them from the danger they had incurred in his support. At length the ministers of the dauphin sent them word that they had not sufficient forces to oppose the king of England and the duke of Burgundy, and advised them to conclude the best treaty they could with them. On receiving this answer, they opened a parley with the king of England, who sent as bis commissioners the earl of Warwick and sir John Cornwall; and, after eighteen weeks' siege, they concluded a treaty on these terms :

First, the besieged were faithfully to surrender to the kings of France and of England the town and castle of Melun; and all the men-at-arms and inhabitants within the said town were to submit themselves to the will of the two kings.-Secondly, the two kings accepted the terms, on condition that should there be any persons who had committed or been accomplices in the murder of the late duke of Burgundy, they should be given up to the punishment due to their crimes. All others, of whatever rank they may be, not implicated in the aforesaid murder, shall have their lives spared, but remain prisoners until they shall have given sufficient securities never to join in arms with the enemies of the said kings. Thirdly, should those accused of having been concerned in the murder of the late duke John of Burgundy be found guiltless, they shall remain in the same state as those not implicated therein. Such as are native subjects of France shall be restored to their possessions on giving the security as before-mentioned.

All the burghers and inhabitants shall remain at the disposal of the two kings. The aforesaid burghers, and also the men-at-arms, shall place, or cause to be placed within the castle of Melun, their armour and warlike habiliments in such wise as they may be seen, without damaging or destroying any parts of them. In like manner, they will carry thither all their moveables.-Item, the garrison shall surrender all prisoners they may have taken in war, and acquit them of their engagements, and also such prisoners as they may have made VOL. I.


before the commencement of the siege.-Item, for the due performance of these articles, twelve of the most noble men in the place after the governor, and six of the principal inhabitants, shall be given up as hostages.-Item, the lord Fordun, an English or Scots knight, and all the English and Scots, shall be at the disposal of the king of England. . When this treaty was concluded the gates of the town and castle were thrown open, and put under the command of the two kings; and the government of it was given by them to one called Pierre de Verault, the ministers of the king of England having the administration of affairs.

The men-at-arms of the dauphin's party, of whom the principal were, sir Pierre de Bourbon, lord of Préaulx, Barbasan, and from five to six hundred noblemen and gentle dames, with the most notable inhabitants, were by command of the king of England, regent of France, carried to Paris under a considerable escort, and there imprisoned in the Châtelet, Bastille, the Temple, and other places. It was strictly commanded by the two kings that no persons should enter the town or castle of Melun, excepting those who had been ordered so to do, under pain of being beheaded. Among others who suffered this punishment were two monks of Jouy in Brie, namely the cellar-keeper of that convent and Dom Symon, formerly monks of Gart.

While this treaty of peace was carrying on, a gentleman of the household of the king of England, named Bertrand de Chaumont (who at the battle of Azincourt had turned from the French to the English because he held his lands in Guyenne under the king of England, and was much beloved by him for his valour,) in an evil hour, and from being badly advised through avarice, aided the escape of Amerian du Lau from the town of Melun, who, as it was said, had been concerned in the murder of the duke of Burgundy. This came to the knowledge of the king of England, who was troubled thereat, and notwithstanding the entreaties of his brother the duke of Clarence, and even of the duke of Burgundy, had him beheaded for this act, tehing them not to speak to him on the subject, for that he would hare no traitors in his army, and that this pnnishment was for an example to all others,-although he would willingly have rather given five hundred thousand nobles than Bertrand should have committed so disloyal an act.



PARIS IN GREAT POMP. WHEN the treaty for the surrender of Melun had been concluded, the king of England and the duke of Burgundy disbanded the greater part of their men, and marched the remainder of their armies to Corbeil, where the king of France and the two queens of France and of England resided. Thence the kings went to Paris, attended by the dukes of Clarence, Burgundy, Bedford, and Exeter, the earls of Warwick, Salisbury, and other great lords. A numerous band of the citizens of Paris came out to meet them in handsome array, and the streets were covered and ornamented with many rich cloths. On their entrance, carols were sung in all the squares through which they passed ; and the two kings rode together side by side, the king of England on the right hand. After them came the dukes of Clarence and Bedford, brothers to king IIenry; and on the opposite side of the street, on the left hand, rode the duke of Burgundy, dressed in deep mourning, followed by the knights and esquires of his household.

The other princes and knights rode after the kings in due order, and they met different processions of the clergy on foot, who halted in the squares, and then presented the holy relics borne by them, to be kissed by the two kings. On their being first offered to the king of France, he turned toward the king of England, and made him a sign to kiss them first; but king Henry, putting his hand to his hood, bowed to king Charles, and said he would kiss them after him, which was done, and thus practised all the way to the church of Nôtre Dame, where the kings and princes dismounted, and entered the church. When they had finished their prayers and thanksgivings before the grand altar, they remounted their horses

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