events in literary as well as political history. (Har- | earth, through which the shades pass into Hudec. pocrat. s. v. Eởnvos; Dionys. i. 46; Clem. Alex. (Hom. II. viii. p. 368 ; comp. HADES. [L. S.] Strom. i. p. 45.) This work, of which some frag ERECHTHEUS. [ERICHTHONIUS.] ments are still extant, formed a comprehensive E'RESUS ("Eperos), a son of Macar, from chronological history, and appears to have been whom the town of Eresus in Lesbos derived its held in high esteem by the ancients. Apollodorus name. (Steph. Byz. s. v.) A second otherwise and Eusebius made great use of it, and Syncellus unknown person of this name was painted in the (p. 96, c.) has preserved from it a list of 38 kings Lesche at Delphi. (Paus. x. 27.) [L. S.) of the Egyptian Thebes. (Comp. Bernhardy, l. c. EREUTHA'LION ('Epevdaliwv), an Arcadian, p. 243, &c.) Another work, likewise of a chrono- who, in the armour of Areithous, which Lycurgus logical kind, was the 'OX uuttlovical. (Diog. Laërt. had given him, fought against the Pylians, but viii. 51; Athen. iv. p. 154; Schol. ad Eurip. He was slain by Nestor. (Hom. Il. iv. 319, vii. 134, cub. 569.) It contained a chronological list of the &c.)

[L. S.] victors in the Olympic games, and other things ERGA'MENES ('Epyauévns), a king of Meconnected with them. (Bernhardy, p. 247, &c.) roc, an Ethiopian by birth, but who had received

Among his grammatical works we notice that a Greek education. He was the first who overOn the Old Attic Comedy (IIepà tis ’Apxalas Kwuw- threw the power of the priests, which had been días, sometimes simply Tepi Kwuwdías, or Kwuco- paramount to that of the sovereign, and established si@), a very extensive work, of which the twelfth a despotic authority. He was contemporary with book is quoted. It contained everything that was Ptolemy Philadelphus, but we know nothing of necessary to arrive at a perfect understanding of the relations in which he stood towards that monthose poetica

uctions. In the first part of the arch. His name has been discovered in the work, Eratosthenes appears to have entered even hieroglyphics at Dakkeh, whence it is inferred that into discussions concerning the structure of thea- his dominions extended as far north as that point. tres, the whole scenic apparatus, the actors, their (Diod. iii. 6; Droysen, Hellenismus, vol. ii. p. 49, costumes, declamation, and the like ; and it is 278.)

[E. H. B.] therefore not improbable that the 'Aρχιτεκτονικός E'RGANE ('Epyávn) or E'RGATIS, that is, (Schol. ad Apollon. Rhod, i. 567, iii. 232) and the worker, a surname of Athena, who was bedrevoypapucós (Pollux, x. 1), which are mentioned lieved to preside over and instruct man in all kinds as separate works, were only portions of the first of arts. * (Paus. v. 14. ♡ 5, i. 24. 3; Plut. de part of his work on the Old Comedy. After this Fort. p. 99, a.; Hesych. s. v.)

[L. S.] general introduction, Eratosthenes discussed the EʻRGIAS ('Epylas) of Rhodes, is mentioned as works of the principal comic poets themselves, such the author of a work on his native island. (Athen. as Aristophanes, Cratinus, Eupolis, Pherecrates, viii

. p. 360.) Gesner and others are of opinion and others, entering into detailed criticism, and that Ergias is the same person as Erxias, who was giving explanations both of their language and the the author of Kosoowiaká. (Athen. xiii. p. 561.) subjects of their comedies. We still possess a con But which of the two names, Ergias or Erxias, is siderable number of fragments of this work (col- the correct one, cannot be determined. [L. S.] lected in Bernhardy, l. c. pp. 205—237); and from ERGI’NUS ('Epyîvos), a son of Clymenus and what he says about Aristophanes, it is evident that Buzyge or Budeia, was king of Orchomenos. After his judgment was as sound as his information was clymenus was killed by Perieres at the festival of extensive. He is further said to have been engaged the Onchestian Poseidon, Erginus, his eldest son, in the criticism and explanation of the Homeric who succeeded him as king, undertook to avenge poems, and to have written on the life and produce the death of his father. Ile marched against tions of that poet; but nothing certain is known Thebes, and surpassing the enemy in the number in this respect. For more complete lists of the of his horsemen, he killed many Thebans, and works attributed to Eratosthenes, see the Eratos- compelled them to a treaty, in which they bound thenica of Bernhardy.

[L. S.) themselves to pay him for twenty years an annual ERATO'STHENES SCHOLA'STICUS, the tribute of 100 oxen. Heracles once met the heralds author of four epigrams in the Greek Anthology of Erginus, who were going to demand the usual (Brinck. Anal. vol. 1. p. 123; Jacobs, vol. iv. p. tribute : he cut off their ears and noses, tied their 93), to which may be added, on the authority hands behind their backs, and thus sent them to of the Vatican MS., a fifth, which stands in the An- Erginus, saying that this was his tribute. Erginus thology among those of Paul the Silentiary (No. now undertook a second expedition against Thebes, 88). In all probability, Eratosthenes lived under but was defeated and slain by Heracles, whom the emperor Justinian. (Jacobs, Anth. Grucc. Athena had provided with arms. (Apollod. ii. 4. vol. xiii. p. 890; Fabric. Bill. Gruec. vol. iv. S 11; Diod. iv. 10; Strab. ix. p. +14; Eustath. ail

[P. S.] Hom. p. 272; Eurip. Flerc. fir. 220; Theocrit. ERATOʻSTRATUS. [HEROSTRATUS] xvi. 105.) Pausanias (ix. 37. $ 2, &c.), who agrees

EʻRATUS ('Epatós), a son of Heracles by with the other writers in the first part of the myDynaste, was king of Argos, and made a suc thus, states, that Erginus made peace with Heracessful expedition against Asine, which was be- cles, and devoted all his energy to the promotion sieged and taken. (Apollod. ii. 7. S 8; Paus. ii. of the prosperity of his kingdom. In this manner 36. & 5.)

[L. S.] Erginus arrived at an advanced age without having E'REBOS ("Epebos), a son of Chaos, begot either wife or children : but, as he did not wish Aether and Heinera by Nyx, his sister. (Hesiod. any longer to live alone, he consulted the Delphic Theog. 123.) Hyginus (Fub. p. 1) and Cicero (de oracle, which advised him to take a youthful wife. Nat. Deor. iii. 17) enumerate many personifica- This he did, and became by her the father of Trotions of abstract notions as the offspring of Erebos. phonius and Agamedes, or, according to Eustatbius The name signifies darkness, and is therefore ap-|(1.c.) of Azeus. Erginus is also mentioned among the plied also to the dark and gloomy space under the Argonauts, and is said to have succeeded Tiphye

p. 474.)

os helmsman. (Schol. ad Apollon. Rhod. i. 185, ii. | the Panathenaea, and to have built a temple o 896.) When the Argonauts took part in the fu- Athena on the acropolis. When Athena and Po neral games which Hypsipyle celebrated at Lem- seidon disputed about the possession of Attica nos in honour of her father Thoas, Erginus also Erichthonius declared in favour of Athena. (A pol contended for a prize; but he was ridiculed by the lod. iii. 14. $ 1.) He was further the first who Lemnian women, because, though still young, he used a chariot with four horses, for which reason had grey hair. However, he conquered the sons he was placed among the stars as auriga (Hygin of Boreas in the foot-race. (Pind. Ol. iv. 29, &c., P. A. I. c.; Virg. Gcorg. i. 205, iii. 113; Aelian, with the Schol.) Later traditions represent our V. H. iii. 38); and lastly, he was believed to have Erginus as a Milesian and a son of Poseidon. made the Athenians acquainted with the use of (Apollon. Rhod. i. 185, &c.; Orph. Argon. 150 ; silver, which had been discovered by the Scythian A pollod. i. 9. § 16; Hygin. Fab. 14; comp. Mül- king Indus. (Hygin. Fab. 274.) He was buried ler, Orchom. p. 179, &c. 2nd edit.) (L. S.] in the temple of Athena, and his worship on the

ERGI'NUS ('Epyivos), a Syrian Greek, who acropolis was connected with that of Athena and betrayed the citadel of Corinth into the hands of Poseidon. (Apollod. iii. 14. 06; Serv. ad sen. vi. Aratus, by informing him of a secret path by 761.) His famous temple, the Erechtheium, stood which it was accessible. For this service he re on the acropolis, and in it there were three altars, ceived 60 talents from Aratus. At a subsequent one of Poseidon, on which sacrifices were offered period he made an attempt to surprise the Peiraecus, to Frechtheus also, the second of Butes, and the in order to free the Athenians from the yoke of third of Hephaestus. (Paus. i. 26. S 6.) Antigonus Gonatas: but failed in the enterprise, Erechtheus II., as he is called, is described as a which was disavowed by Aratus. (Plut. Arat. grandson of the first, and as a son of Pandion by cc. 18—22, 33.)

[E. H. B.] Zeuxippe, so that he was a brother of Butes, ERIBOEA ('Epiboia). There are three mythical | Procne, and Philomela. (Apollod. iii. 14. S 8; personages of this name. One was the wife of Paus. i. 5. S 3.) After his father's death, he sucAloeus (Hom. II. v. 385, &c.), the second the wife ceeded him as king of Athens, and was regarded of Telamon (Soph. Ajar, 562; Pind. Isthm. vi. 42), in later times as one of the Attic eponymi. He and the third an Amazon. (Diod. iv. 16.) [L.S.] was married to Praxithea, by whom he became the

ERIBOʻTES ('Epıbátns), the son of Teleon, father of Cecrops, Pandoros, Metion, Orneus, was one of the Argonauts, and appears to have Procris, Creusa, Chthonia, and Oreithyia. (Apolacted as surgeon, as he is represented as attending lod. iii. 15. § 1; Paus. ii. 25. & 5; Öv. Met. vi. on Oileus when he was wounded. (Apollon. | 676.) His four daughters, whose names and Rhod. Argon. i. 73, ii. 1040; Hygin. Fab. 14 ; , whose stories differ very much in the different traValer. Flacc. Argon.)

[W. A. G.] ditions, agreed among themselves to die all together, ERICHTHONIUS ('Ep.xobvios). 1. There if one of them was to die. When Eumolpus, the can be little doubt but that the names Erich thonius son of Poseidon, whose assistance the Eleusinians and Erechtheus are identical ; but whether the had called in against the Athenians, had been two heroes mentioned by Plato, Hyginus, and killed by the latter, Poseidon or an oracle demandApollodorus, the one of whom is usually called ed the sacrifice of one of the daughters of ErechErichthonius or Erechtheus I. and the other Erech-theus. When one was drawn by lot, the others theus II., are likewise one and the same person, as voluntarily accompanied her in death, and ErechMüller (Orchom. p. 117, 2d edit.) and others think, theus himself was killed by Zeus with a flash of je not so certain, though highly probable. Homer lightning at the request of Poseidon. (Apollod. ii. (Il. ii. 547, &c., Od. vii. 81) knows only one 15. ♡ 4; Hygin. Fab. 46, 238; Plut. Parall. Gr. Trechtheus, as an autochthon and king of Athens; et Rom. 20.) In his war with the Eleusinians, he and the first writer who distinguishes two person is also said to have killed Immaradus, the son of ages is Plato. (Crit. p. 110, a.) The story of Eumolpus. (Paus. i. 5. 2; comp. AGRAULOS.) Erichthonius is related thus: When Hephaestus According to Diodorus (i. 29), Erechtheus was an wished to embrace Athena, and the goddess re- Egyptian, who during a famine brought corn to pulsed him, he became by Ge or by Atthis, the Athens, instituted the worship of Demeter, and daughter of Cranaus, the father of a son, who had the Eleusinian mysteries. either completely or only half the form of a ser 2. A son of Dardanus and Bateia. He was the pent. Athena reared this being without the know- husband of Astyoche or Callirrhoë, and father of ledge of the other gods, had him guarded by a Tros or Assaracus, and the wealthiest of all mortals, dragon, and then entrusted him to Agraulos, Pan- for 3000 mares grazed in his fields, which were so drosos, and Herse, concealed in a chest, and for- | beautiful, that Boreas fell in love with them. He bade them to open it. (Hygin. Poct. Astr. ii. 13.) | is mentioned also among the kings of Crete. (Hom. But this command was neglected ; and on opening Il. xx. 220, &c.; Apollod. iii. 12. § 2 ; Dionys. the chest and seeing the child in the form of a ser- | i. 62 ; Ov. Fast. iv. 33; Serv. ad Aen. viii. 130; pent, or entwined by a serpent, they were seized Strab. xiii. p. 604.)

[L. S.] with madness, and threw themselves down the ERI'DANUS ('Hpídavos), a river god, a son of rock of the acropolis, or, according to others, into Oceanus and Tethys, and father of Zeuxippe. (He

The serpent escaped into the shield of siod. Theog. 338 ; Hygin. Fab. 14.) He is called Athena, and was protected by her. (Apollod. iii. the king of rivers, and on its banks amber was 14. 96; Hygin. Fab. 166; Paus. i. 2. § 5, 18. $ 2; found. (Virg. Georg. i. 482 ; Ov. Met. ii. 324.) In Eurip. Ion, 260, &c.; Iv. Met. ii. 554.) When | Homer the name does not occur, and the first writer Erichthonius had grown up, he expelled Amphic- who mentions it is Hesiod. Herodotus (iii. 15) tyon, and usurped the government of Athens, and declares the name to be barbarous, and the invenEis wife Pasithea bore him a son Pandion. (A pol- tion of some poet. (Comp. Strab. v. p. 215.) The lod. I. c.). He is said to have introduced the wor-position which the ancient poets assign to the ahip of Athena, to have instituted the festival of river Eridanus differed at different times. [L. S.]

the sea.

ERIÖGONE ('Hplyóvn.) 1. A daughter of cobs, vol. i. p. 50), of which the firsi has the genuine Icarius, seduced by Bacchus, who came into her air of antiquity; but the other two, addressed to father's house. (Ov. Met. vi. 125; Hygin. Fab. Baucis, seem to be a later fabrication. She had a 130; comp. Icarius.)

place in the Garland of Meleager (v. 12). 2. A daughter of Aegisthus and Clytaemnestra, 2. A Greek poetess, who, if we may believe and by Orestes the mother of Penthilus. (Paus. Eusebius (Chron. Arm., Syncell. p. 260, a., Hieron.) ii. 18. § 5.) Hyginus (Fab. 122), on the other was contemporary with Demosthenes and Philip of hand, relates that Orestes wanted to kill her like Macedon, in Ol. 107, B. c. 352. Several good schoher mother, but that Artemis removed her to At- | lars, however, reject this statement altogether, and tica, and there made her her priestess. Others only allow of one Erinna. (Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. state, that Erigone put an end to herself when she ii. p. 120; Welcker, de Erinna, Corinna, fc. in heard that Orestes was acquitted by the Areiopagus. Creuzer's Meletemata, pt. ii. p. 3; Richter, Suppho (Dict. Cret. vi. 4.) A third Erigone is mentioned und Erinna ; Schneidewin, Delect. Poes. Graec. by Servius. (Ad Virg. Eclog. iv. 6.) [L. S.] Eleg. &c., p. 323 ; Idem, in Zimmermann's Zeit

ERIÖGONUS, originally a colour-grinder to the schrift für die Alterthumswissenschaft, 1837, p. painter Nealces, obtained so much knowledge of 209; Bode, Gesch. d. Hell. Dichth. vol. ii. pt. 2, his master's art, that he became the teacher of the p. 448.)

[P. S.] celebrated painter Pasias, the brother of the mo ERINNYES. [EUMENIDAE.] deller Aegineta. (Plin. xxxv. 1), s. 40. § 41.) ERIO'PIS ('EPIWTIS). There are four mythical From this statement it follows that he flourished personages of this name. (Hom. Il. xiii. 697; about B. c. 240. [A EGINETA.] [P. S.] Schol. ad Pind. Pyth. iii. 14; Paus. ii. 3. 5 7 ; ERIGY'IUS ('Eplyuios, 'Epıyúños), a Mytile- Hesych. s. v.)

[L. S.] naean, son of Larichus, was an officer in Alexan ERI'PHÁNIS ('Hpipavis), a melic poetess, and der's army. He had been driven into banishment author of erotic poetry. One particular kind of by Philip because of his faithful attachment to love-song was called after her ; but only one line of Alexander, and returned when the latter came to hier's is preserved in Athenaeus (xiv. p. 619), the the throne in B. c. 336. At the battle of Arbela, only ancient author that mentions her." [L. S.] B. C. 331, he commanded the cavalry of the allies, ÈRIPHUS (Epipos), an Athenian comic poet as he did also when Alexander set out from Ec- of the middle comedy. According to Athenaeus, he batana in pursuit of Dareius, B. c. 330. In the lived at the same time as Antiphanes, or only a little same year Erigyius was entrusted with the com- later, and he copied whole verses from Antiphanes. mand of one of the three divisions with which That he belonged to the middle comedy, is suffiAlexander invaded Hyrcania, and he was, too, ciently shewn by the extant titles of his plays, among the generals sent against Satibarzanes, whom namely, Axoxos, Meribola, de Taotńs. Eustathius he slew in battle with his own hand. [CARANUS, (ad. Hom. p. 1686. 43) calls him nóylos ávýp. No. 3.] In 329, together with Craterus and (Athen. ii. p. 58, a., iii. p. 84, b. c., iv. pp. 134, C., Hephaestion, and by the assistance of Aristander 137, d., vii

. p. 302, e., xv. p. 693, c.; Antiatt. the soothsayer, he endeavoured to dissuade Alex- p. 98. 26; Suidas, s. r.; Eudoc. p. 167: Meineke, ander from crossing the Jaxartes against the Scy- Frag. Com. Graec. vol. i. pp. 420 421, iii. pp. thians. In 328 he fell in battle against the 556—558 ; Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. ii. pp. 441, Bactrian fugitives. (Arr. Anab. iii. 6, 11, 20, 23, 442.)

[P.S.] 28, iv. 4; Diod. xvii. 57; Curt. vi. 4. § 3, vii. 3. ERIPHY'LE ('Epiphan), a daughter of Talaus $ 2, 4. SS 32-40, 7. SS 6–29, viii. 2. $ 40.) [E. E.) and Lysimache, and the wife of Amphiaraus, whom

ERINNA (*Hplvva). There seem to have been she betrayed for the sake of the necklace of Hartwo Greek poetesses of this name. 1. A contem- monia. (Hom. Od. xi. 326 ; Apollod. i. 9. § 3; porary and friend of Sappho (about B. c. 612), AMPIARAUS, ALCMAEON, HARMONIA.) [L. S.j who died at the age of nineteen, but left behind ERIPHY'LUS, a Greek rhetorician, who is her poems which were thought worthy to rank mentioned by Quintilian (x. 6. S 4), but is otherwith those of Homer. Her poems were of the epic wise unknown.

[L. S.] class: the chief of them was entitled 'Hlakátn, ERIS ("Epis), the goddess who calls forth war the Distaff: it consisted of three hundred lines, of and discord. According to the Iliad, she wanders which only four are extant. (Stob. Flor. cxviii. 4; about, at first small and insignificant, but she soon Athen. vii

. p. 283, d.; Bergk, Poët. Lyr. Graec. p. raises her head up to heaven (iv. 441). She is the 632.) It was written in a dialect which was a friend and sister of Ares, and with him she demixture of the Doric and Aeolic, and which was lights in the tumult of war, increasing the moaning spoken at Rhodes, where, or in the adjacent island of men. (iv. 445, v. 518, xx. 48.) She is insatiable of Telos, Erinna was born. She is also called a in her desire for bloodshed, and after all the other Lesbian and a Mytilenaean, on account of her re- gods have withdrawn from the battle-field, she sidence in Lesbos with Sappho. (Suidas, s. 7.; still remains rejoicing over the havoc that has been Eustath. ad I. ii. 726, p. 326.) There are several made. (v. 518, xi. 3, &c., 73.) According to Heepigrams upon Erinna, in which her praise is ce siod (Thcog. 225, &c.), she was a daughter of lebrated, and her untimely death is lamented. Night, and the poet describes her as the mother (Brunck, Anal.vol.i.p. 241, n. 81, p. 218, n. 35, vol. ii. of a variety of allegorical beings, which are the p. 19, n. 47, vol. iii. p. 261, n.523,524, vol. ii. p. 460.) causes or representatives of man's misfortunes. It The passage last cited, which is from the Ecphrasis was Eris who threw the apple into the assembly of Christodorus (vv. 108–110) shews, that her of the gods, the cause of so much suffering and statue was erected in the gymnasium of Zeuxippus war. [Paris.] Virgil introduces Discordia as a at Byzantium. Her statue by Naucydes is men-being similar to the Homeric Eris; for Discordia tioned by Tatian. . (Orat. ad Gracc. 52, p. 113, appears in company with Mars, Bellona, and the Worth.) Three epigrams in the Greek Anthology Furies, and Virgil is evidently imitating Homer. are ascribed to her (Brunck, Anal. vol. i. p. 58 ; Ja-1 (Aen. viii. 702; Serv. ad Aen. i. 31, vi. 280.) [L.S.I


[ocr errors]


ERIU'NIUS ('Epoúvios) or ERINNES, the own daughter Aphrodite, so that Zeus was at once
giver of good fortune, occurs as a surname of Her- his father and grandfather. (Virg. Cir. 134.) Eros
mes, but is also used as a proper name instead of in this stage is always conceived and was always
Hermes. (Hom. 11. xxiv. 440, 457, Od. viii. 322; represented as a handsome youth, and it is not
Aristoph. Ran. 1143.)

[L. S.] till about after the time of Alexander the Great ERO'PHILUS, a distinguished engraver of that Eros is represented by the epigrammatists and gems, was the son of Dioscorides. He lived, there the erotic poets as a wanton boy, of whom a thoufore, under the early Roman emperors. He is only sand tricks and cruel sports are related, and from known by a beautiful gem, bearing the head of whom neither gods nor men were safe. He is Augustus, on which his name appears, though generally described as a son of Aphrodite ; but as partially defaced. (Meyer zu Winckelmann, B. xi. love finds its way into the hearts of men in a manc. 2. § 18, Abbildungen, No. 92; Müller, Arch. d. ner which no one knows, the poets sometimes de Kunst, S 200, n. 1.)

[P. S.] scribe him as of unknown origin (Theocrit. xiii. 2), ERO'PON, an officer in the confidence of or they say that he had indeed a mother, but not Perseus, king of Macedonia, who sent him in B. C. a father. (Meleagr. Epigr.50.) In this stage Eros 168 to negotiate an alliance with Eumenes II., has nothing to do with uniting the discordant eleking of Pergamus, against the Romans. Livy ments of the universe, or the higher sympathy or says that Eropon had been engaged before on love which binds human kind together; but he is. secret services of the same nature. (Liv. xliv. 24, purely the god of sensual love, who bears sway 27, 28.) This name should perhaps be substituted over the inhabitants of Olympus as well as over for Kpupwvta in Polyb. xxix. 3. [E. E.] men and all living creatures: he tames lions and

EROS ('Epws), in Latin, AMOR or CUPI'DO, tigers, breaks the thunderbolts of Zeus, deprives. the god of love. In the sense in which he is usu Heracles of his arms, and carries on his sport ally conceived, Eros is the creature of the later with the monsters of the sea. (Orph. Hymn. 57; Greek poets; and in order to understand the an Virg. Eclog. x. 29; Mosch. Idyll. vi. 10; Theocrit. cients properly we must distinguish three Erotes : iii. 15.) His arms, consisting of arrows, which he viz. the Eros of the ancient cosmogonies, the Eros carries in a golden quiver, and of torches, no of the philosophers and mysteries, who bears great one can touch with impunity. (Mosch. Idyll. vi.; resemblance to the first, and the Eros whom we Theocrit. xxiii. 4; Ov. Trist. v. 1, 22.) His armeet with in the epigrammatic and erotic poets, rows are of different power: some are golden, and whose witty and playful descriptions of the god, kindle love in the heart they wound; others are however, can scarcely be considered as a part of blunt and heavy with lead, and produce aversion the ancient religious belief of the Greeks. Homer to a lover. (Ov. Met. i. 468 ; Eurip. Iphiy. Aul. does not mention Eros, and Hesiod, the earliest 548.) Eros is further represented with golden author that mentions him, describes him as the wings, and as fluttering about like a bird. (Comp. cosmogonic Eros. First, says Ilesiod (Theoy. 120, Eustath. ad Hom. p. 987.) His eyes are some &c.), there was Chaos, then came (ie, Tartarus, times covered, so that he acts blindly. (Theocrit. and Eros, the fairest among the gods, who rules x. 20.) He is the usual companion of his mother over the minds and the council of gods and men. Aphrodite, and poets and artists represent him, In this account we already perceive a combination moreover, as accompanied by such allegorical beingsof the most ancient with later notions. According as Pothos, Himeros, Dionysus, Tyche, Peitho, the to the former, Eros was one of the fundamental Charites or Muses. (Pind. Ol. i. 41; Anacr. causes in the formation of the world, inasmuch as xxxiii. 3; Hesiod, Theog. 201; Paus. vi. 24. § 5, he was the uniting power of love, which brought vii. 26. \ 3, i. 43. § 6.) His statue and that of order and harmony among the conflicting elements Hermes usually stood in the Greek gymnasia. of which Chaos consisted. In the same metaphy- (Athen. xiii. p. 551; Eustath. ad Hom. p. 1596.) sical sense he is conceived by Aristotle (Metaph. i. We must especially notice the connexion of 4); and similarly in the Orphic poetry (Orph. Eros with Anteros, with which persons usually conHymn. 5; comp. Aristoph. Av. 695) he is de- nect the notion of “ Love returned.” But originally scribed as the first of the gods, who sprang from Anteros was a being opposed to Eros, and fighting the world's egg. In Plato's Symposium (p. 178, b) against him. (Paus. i. 30. § 1, vi. 23. § 4.) This he is likewise called the oldest of the gods. It is conflict, however, was also conceived as the rivalry quite in accordance with the notion of the cosmo-existing between two lovers, and Anteros accordgonic Eros, that he is described as a son of Cronos ingly punished those who did not return the love and Ge, of Eileithyia, or as a god who had no of others; so that he is the avenging Eros, or a parentage, and came into existence by himself. deus ullor. (Paus. i. 30. § 1; Ov. Níet. xiii. 750, (Paus. ix. c. 27.) The Eros of later poets, on the &c.; Plat. Phacdr. p. 255, d.) The number of other hand, who gave rise to that notion of the Erotes (Amores and Cupidines) is playfully exgod which is most familiar to us, is one of the tended ad libitum by later poets, and these Erotes youngest of all the gods. (Paus. l. c.; Cic. de Nat. are described either as sons of Aphrodite or of Deor. iii. 23.) The parentage of the second Eros nymphs. Among the places distinguished for their is very differently described, for he is called a son worship of Eros, Thespiae in Boeotia stands foreof Aphrodite (either Aphrodite Urania or Aphro most : there his worship was very ancient, and the dite Pandemos), or Polymnia, or a son of Porus old representation of the god was a rude stone and Penia, who was begotten on Aphrodite's birth-(Paus. ix. 27. $ 1), to which in later times, howday. (Plat. l. c.; Sext. Emp. adv. Math. i. 540.) ever, the most exquisite works of art were added. According to other genealogies, again, Eros was a (Eustath. ad Hom. p. 266.) At Thespiae a quinson of Hermes by Artemis or Aphrodite, or of quennial festival, the Erotidia or Erotia, were cele Ares by Aphrodite (Cic. de Nat. Deor. iii. 23), or brated in honour of the god. (Paus. l. c.; Athen. of Zephyrus and Iris (Plut. Amat. 20; Eustath. xiii. p. 561.) Besides Sparta, Samos, and Parion ad lIom. p. 555), or, lastly, a son of Zeus by his on the Hellespont, he was also worshipped at

[ocr errors]

Athens, where he had an altar at the entrance of | 8vo., Greek and Latin, containing also the glosthe Academy. (Pans. i. 30. § 1.) At Megara his saries of Galen and Herodotus, a learned and statue, together with those of Himeros and Pothos, copious commentary, and good indices. It has also stood in the temple of Aphrodite. (Paus. i. 43. S 6, been published with some editions of the works of comp. iii. 26. § 3, vi. 24. § 5, vii. 26. § 3.) Hippocrates.

[W. A. G.] Among the things sacred to Eros, and which fre ERO'TIUS, vicarius and quaestor, one of the quently appear with him in works of art, we may commission of Sixteen, appointed by Theodosius mention the rose, wild beasts which are tamed by in d. D. 435, to compile the Theodosian Coile. him, the hare, the cock, and the ram.

Eros was a

He does not appear, however, to have taken any favourite subject with the ancient statuaries, but distinguished part in its composition. [DIODORI'S, his representation seems to have been brought to vol. i. p. 1018.]

[J. T. G.] perfection by Praxiteles, who conceived him as a ERÜ'CIA GENS, plebeian. Only one member full-grown youth of the most perfect beauty. (Lu- of this gens is mentioned in the time of the repubcian, Am. ii. 17; Plin. H. N. xxxvi. 4, 5.) In lic, namely, C. Erucius, the accuser of Sex. Roscius of later times artists followed the example of poets, | Ameria, whom Cicero defended in B. C. 80. From and represented him as a little boy. (Hirt, N1ythol. | Cicero's account he would appear to have been a Bilderb. ii. p. 216, &c.; Welcker, Zeitschrift für man of low origin. (Cic. pro Rosc. 13, 16, 18die alte Kunst, p. 475.) Respecting the connexion 21, 29, 32.) Ilis name also appears as one of the between Eros and Psyche, see PsYCHE. [L. S.] accusers of L. Varenus, who was likewise defendeu

EROS ("Epws ) occurs in three ancient Latin | by Cicero, but in what year is uncertain. [VAinscriptions as the name of one or more physicians, rexus.] He was called by Cicero in his speech one of whom is supposed to have been physician for Varenus Antoniaster, that is, an imitator of the to Julia, the daughter of the emperor Augustus. orator Antonius. (Cic. Frum. pro Varen. 8, p. There is extant a short work, written in bad 443, ed. Orelli.) The Ericius ('Epícios) who is Latin, and entitled “ Curandarum Aegritudinum mentioned by Plutarch (Sull. 16, 18) as one of Muliebrium ante et post Partum Liber unicus,” Sulla's legates in the Mithridatic war, is supposeil which has sometimes been attributed to Eros. by Drumann (Gesch. Roms, vol. iii. p. 68) to be a The style, however, and the fact that writers are false reading for Hirtius, but we ought perhaps to quoted in it who lived long after the time of read Ericius. Augustus, prove that this supposition is not correct. Under the empire, in the second century after It has also been attributed to a female named Christ, a family of the Erucii of the name of Clarus Trotula, under whose name it is generally quoted ; attained considerable distinction. [CLARUS.] but C. G. Gruner, who has examined the subject E'RXIAS. [ERGIAS.] in a dissertation entitled Neque Eros, neque

ERYCI'NA ('Epukivn), a surname of Aphrodite, Trotula, sed Salernitanus quidam Medicus, isque derived from mount Eryx, in Sicily, where she had Christianus, Auctor Libelli est qui De Morbis a famous temple, which was said to have been built Mulierum inscribitur” (Jenae, 1773, 4to.), proves by Eryx, a son of Aphrodite and the Sicilian king that this also is incorrect. The work is of very Butes. (Diod. iv. 83.) Virgil (rden. v. 760) makes little value, and is included in the Aldine collec- Aeneias build the temple. Psophis, a daughter of tion, entitled “ Medici Antiqui omnes qui Latinis Eryx, was believed to have founded a temple of Litteris," &c., fol., Venet. 1517, and in the collec- Aphrodite Erycina, at Psophis, in Arcadia. (Paus. tion of writers “ Gynaeciorum,” or “on Female viii. 24. § 3.) From Sicily the worship of AphroDiseases,” Basil. 4to, 1566. It was also published dite (Venus) Erycina was introduced at Rome in 1778, Lips. 8vo., together with H. Kornmann, about the beginning of the second Punic war (Lir. “ De Virginum Statu,” &c. [W. A. G.] xxii. 9, 10, xxiii. 30, &c.), and in B.c. 181 a tem

EROTIA’NUS (’Epwtravós), or, as he is some-ple was built to her outside the Porta Collatina. times called, Herodianus ('Howdlavós), the author | (Liv. xl. 34 ; Ov. F'ust. iv. 871, Rem. Amor. 549 ; of a Greek work still extant, entitled Tôv nap Strab. vi. p. 272 ; comp. Cic. in l'err. iv. 8 ; Horat. 'ITTOKPátel nécewv Evvaywyn, Vocum, quae apud Carm. i. 2. 33; O«. Ileroid. xv. 57.) [L. S.] Hippocratem sunt, Collectio. It is uncertain whether ERY'CIUS ('Epúklos), the name of two poets, he was himself a physician, or merely a gramma- whose epigrams are in the Greek Anthology. The rian, but he appears to have written (or at least to one is called a Cyzicene, the other a Thessalian; have intended to write) some other works on Hip- and, from the internal evidence of the epigrams, it pocrates besides that which we now possess (pp. is probable that the one lived in the time of Sulla, 23, 208, ed. Franz). He must have lived (and and about B. C. 84, the other under the emperor probably at Rome) in the reign of the emperor Hadrian. Their epigrams are so mixed up, that it Nero, A. D. 54—68, as his work is dedicated to his is impossible to distinguish accurately between archiater, Andromachus. It is curious as contain them, and we cannot even determine which of the ing the earliest list of the writings of Hippocrates two poets was the elder, and which the younger. that exists, in which we find the titles of several | We only know that the greater number of the epitreatises now lost, and also miss several that now grams are of a pastoral nature, and belong to Eryform part of the Hippocratic collection. The rest cius of Cyzicus. (Brunck, anal, vul. ii. p. 295; Jaof the work consists of a glossary, in which the cobs, Anth. Graec. vol. iii. p. I, vol. xiii

. pp. 891, words are at present arranged in a partially 892; Fabric. Bibl. Graec, vol. iv. p. 474.) [P.S.) alphabetical manner, though it appears that this ERYMANTHUS ('Epúuav$os). 1. A rivermode of arrangement is not that which was adopted god in Arcadia, who had a temple and a statne at by the author himself. It was first published in Psophis. (Paus. viii. 24. 86; Aelian, V.H. ii. 33.) Greek, 8vo., 1564, Paris. in H. Stephani Dictiona 2. A son of Apollo, was blinded by Aphrodite, rium Medicum ; a Latin translation by Barth. because he had seen her in the bath. Apollo, in Eustachius appeared in 1566, 4to., Venet. ; the revenge, metamorphosed himself into a wild boar, last and best edition is that by Franz, Lips. 1780, 1 and killed Adonis. (Ptolem. Heph. i. 306.)


« 前へ次へ »