a sort of wine. The flowers of Thibaudia Quereme are used by straight in the axis of a fleshy albumen; stem woody ; leaves the Peruvians in the composition of an aromatic tincture useful provided with caducous stipules, and ordinarily alternate. in toothache.

The Celastraceæ are usually shrubs, sometimes climbing. The rhododendrons, which belong to the family Ericaceæ, Their flowers are regular, axillary, disposed in cymes, small are remarkable for their narcotic property. The yellow- green, white, or purple in colour. The base of the calyx is flowered rhododendron (Rhododendron chrysanthum), a shrub surrounded with a fleshy disc, sometimes adherent to the ovary, growing in the Alps and Northern Asia, has bitter astringent The petals, enlarged towards the base, are inserted upon the leaves, employed occasionally in medicine.

border of the disc; imbricated in æstivation. The ovary is Among the Vacc:niaceæ, the South American plant Thibaudia merged to a varying extent into the disc; ovules reflexed. microphylla, & shrub which grows on the Andes in Peru, Fruit, two to five celled, sometimes dehiscent, either drupaceous deserves to be mentioned. Its leaves con

or samaroidal, or, finally, capsular with tain a powerful narcotic, and if eaten by

loculicidal dehiscence, or mode of splitting cattle they are fatal. Kalmia latifolia, if

in cells. The seeds are enveloped in a swallowed, causes a species of drunkenness

eshy arillus. Radicle inferior. and delirium, vomitings, convulsions, and

The Celastraceæ inhabit for the most frequently death. The intoxicating honey

part the sub-tropical regions of the southern of the Euxine, so celebrated amongst the

hemisphere ; towards either pole and the ancients from the date of the retreat of

equator they become rare, and none are the ten thousand under the Greek historian

found in the two frigid zones. The greater Xenophon, derived its qualities from the

number of Celastraceæ contain bitter




flowers of the Azalea Pontica and Rhododen

and astringent principles, united with others dron Ponticum.

which are acrid, purgative, and emetie, or Most of the species already mentioned are

simply stimulant. The fruit of certain species cultivated in gardens as ornamental shrubs.

is fleshy and edible, the seeds of others conThe Vacciniaceæ, in addition to the genera

tain a fixed oil. The Celastrus scandens is already mentioned, furnish to horticulture the

termed by the French Bourreau des arbres Thibaudia and Macleania. Thibaudia pulcher

(trees' hangman), because it winds so tightly rima was originally brought from Northern India; its flowers around their trunk that they are strangled. are disposed in umbels sessile upon the aged and leafless stems. This species is indigenous to North America. Its bark is

The corolla of these flowers is tubular, campanulate, palish- emetic. The Celastrus venatus, a spring shrub growing at the red in colour, verging occasionally towards greenish-yellow, Cape of Good Hope, is dangerous on account of the wounds marked longitudinally and transversely with lines of deep red. it causes. The Maytenus macrocarpus is a Peruvian shrub,

SECTION LXII.-CELASTRACEÆ, OR SPINDLE-TREES. the leaves of which are acid. The M. Chiliensis is an efficacions

Characteristics : Calyx free, four or five partite; corolla peri- remedy against the poison oak. The decoction of its leaves is gynous, with four to five petals; stamens four to five, alternate employed as a wash for application to parts injured by the with the petals ; ovary two to five celled, ordinarily containing former plant. The kat or gat (Catha edulis) is cultivated one or two ovules; ovules ascending; fruit capsular or dru- along with coffee in Arabia, and is in great repute amongst the paceous ; seeds generally provided with an arillus, or exterior Arabs as a preventive of sleep. They moreover pretend that coating fixed to them at the base only; embryo dicotyledonous, localities where this plant grows are always free from the plague.


» 3,

£313 14





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Bought of Andrews and Co., London,

14 bags of Maranham Cotton (on credit), WHEN you see in a city, such as London, a space of ground Net 4350 lbs. at 7£d. per lb.

£135 18 dug up to a certain depth, and surrounded by a hoarding, you

31st. naturally conclude that a building is about to be commenced, that a superstructure is about to be raised, and that its Accepted Two Bills drawn by Andrews and Co., London,

No. 2, Payable to their Order, due at 3 months £327 50 foundation is in the process of preparation. You are still

Smith and Co. 4 months

135 18 9 more convinced of the fact, when you see cartloads of stone,

February 1st. brick, and lime deposited within the hoard, and workmen proceeding to prepare the mortar and stones or bricks for Sold to Brown and Smith, London,

22 bags of Berbice Cotton (at 1 mo. credit), the foundation. So it is in the system of Bookkeeping by

Net 7280 lbs. at 104d. per Ib.

£318 10 Donble Entry, which we are about to lay before you. We

Discount at 15 per cent.

4 15 7 must begin with a series of transactions in business, which are arranged in the exact order of their occurrence, as the materials to be employed in forming a system or superstructure which

5th. shall constitute a model for your guidance in keeping the books Drew out of the London and Westminster Bank

£100 of any mercantile house in which you may hereafter be engaged.

5th. We have selected the supposed transactions of a particular

£100 00 branch of home trade-namely, that of a cotton merchant, as Lent to Thomas Watson, London

10th. one well adapted, from its simplicity and generality, to exemplify the principles which we have explained in former lessons. Bought of White and Co., London, We have arranged these transactions in order from January,

24 bags of West India Cotton (at 1 mo. credit),


Net 7460 lbs. at 6 d. per lb. when we suppose the business to be commenced, till June,

0 10 when we suppose a balance to be struck, and the merchant's

Discount at 1} per cent.

3 0 7 real worth ascertained. These six months' transactions in

£199 the cotton trade are interspersed with various banking, bill,

14th, and cash transactions, such as might be supposed to occur in sold to Williams and Co., London, the business of a cotton merchant resident in the metropolis ; 14 bags of Grenada Cotton (at 1 mo. credit), and the whole is afterwards entered in the various subsidiary Net 4312 lbs. at 9 d. per lb.

£170 13 8 books which belong to such a business; then into the Journal ; Discount at 14 per cent.

2 11 and, lastly, into the Ledger. The General Balance is then

£168 taken, and the difference between the Assets and Liabilities, or

the real worth of the merchant, is ascertained from the Ledger
alone. The remarks which it will be necessary to make con- Bought of White and Co., London,
cerning the method of Balancing the Books--a process equivalent

24 bags of West India Cotton (at 1 mo. credit),
Net 8476 lbs. at 6d. por lb.

£229 11 2 to the taking of stock among tradesmen and others, who only use Single Entry—we must postpone until we have shown how

Discount at 15 per cent.

3 8 10 to make up the Subsidiary Books of our system.


sold to Williams and Co., London, 1863. January 1st.

16 bags of Grenada Cotton (at 1 mo credit), Began business with a Capital of £120000 Net 4928 lbs. at 9 d. per lb.

£195 1 4 Discount at 1} per cent.

2 18 6 3rd. Deposited my Capital in the London and Westminster

£192 2 10 Bank



Received of Thomas Watson, London,
My Loan of the 5th instant

£100 0 Drew ont of the London and Westminster Bank. £10 0

Deposited in the London and Westminster Bank

£100 00 Took from Cash for Petty Cash .



Bought of the East India Company, 7th.

10 Lots of Madras Cotton (prompt April 25th), viz., Bought of Osmond and Co., London,

No. 1, containing 12 bales, net 4320 lbs. at 4d. per lb. £72 0 0 22 bags of Berbice Cotton (on credit),



71 00 Net 7280 lbs. at 9fd. per lb.

£288 3 4


68 17 4

1 4 10th.

3976 Took from Cash for Petty Cash


4 0 7.



78 0 Bonght of Andrews and Co., London,


1 0 30 bags of Grenada Cotton (on credit),


4004 Net 9240 lbs. at 8}d. per lb.

75 1 6 £327 5 17th.

£721 12 Drew out of the London and Westminster Bank £985 0


Due to James Manning, London,
For his Brokerage on £721 12s. at per cent.

£3 12 2 Bought £1000 of Stock in the Three per Cents. Consols,

26th. st 981 per cent.

£985 00
Drew out of the London and Westminster Bank

e120 0 0 21st.

26th. Accepted a Bill drawn by Osmond and Co., London, No. 1, Payable to their Order, due at 3 months

Lent to Darling and Co., of London

£50 0 0 £288 3

28th. 22nd.

Paid the East India Company their Deposit on Drew out of the London and Westminster Bank . £10 00

10 Lots of Cotton at £6 per Lot

0 0 22nd.

28th. Took out of Cash for my Private Account £10 0 Took out of Cash for Petty Cash

£10 00 VOL. III.










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£183 4 3

March 1st. Received of Brown and Smith, London, For Cotton sold to them February 1st,

1st. Deposited in the London and Westminster Bank

2nd. Paid James Manning, London, For his Brokerage on the Purchase of Cotton

3rd. Sold £1000 of Stock in the Three per Cents. Consols, at 99% per cent.

3rd. Deposited in the London and Westminster Bank

5th. Received of Darling and Co., of London, My Loan of the 26th ult.

5th. Deposited in the London and Westminster Bank

10th. Drew out of the London and Westminster Bank

10th. Paid White and Co., London, For Cotton bought of them February 10th

13th. Sold to Spencer and Co., London, 14 bags of Maranham Cotton (at 1 mo. credit),

Net 4350 lbs. at 9d. per lb. Discount 11 per cent.


14th. Received of Williams and Co., London, For Cotton sold to them 14th February

14th. Deposited in the London and Westminster Bank

16th. Sold to Thompson and Co., London, 24 bags of West India Cotton, for Cash,

Net 7460 lbs. at 84d. per lb. Discount 24 per cent.

16th. Received of Thompson and Co., London, For Cotton sold to them this day .

17th. Paid to White and Co., London, For Cotton bought of them 17th February

18th. Took from Cash for my Private Account

21st. Received of Williams and Co., London, For Cotton sold to them 21st February.

21st, Deposited in the London and Westminster Bank

22nd. Sold to Althorpe and.Co., London, 12 bags of West India Cotton (for cash in a week), Net 4240 lbs. at 8d. per lb. .

24th. Bought of Baring, Smith, and Co., London, 30 bags of Demerara Cotton (on credit), Net 9218 lbs. at 7 d. per lb.

26th. Drew out of the London and Westminster Bank

26th. Lent White and Co., London

29th, Received of Althorpe and Co., London, For Cotton sold to them on the 22nd inst.

30th. Received of White and Co. London, My Loan of the 26th inst.

30th. Deposited in the London and Westminster Bank

7th. £997 10 0 Bought of Andrews and Co., London,

22 bags of Maranham Cotton (on credit), £1000 0 0 Net 7166 lbs. at 8d. per lb..

£238 17 4

Aceepted a Bin drawn by Andrews and Co., London,

No. 5, payable to Ford and Co., due at 3 months £238 17 4 £50 00

12th, €5000

Sold to Allison and Co., of London,
12 bags of West India Cotton (on credit),
Net 4236 lbs. at 88d. per lb.

£150 06 £200 0 0

13th. Drew a Bill on Allison and Co., London,

No. 1, payable to my Order, due at 2 months. £150 06 £199 0 3

13th. Received of Spencer and Co., London,

For Cotton sold to them on the 13th March. £160 137 £163 26 2 8 11


EXERCISES FROM THE BOOK OF PROVERBS. 1. Yίος σοφος ευφραινει πατερα, υίος δε αφρων λυπη τη μητρι.

2. Πενια ανδρα ταπεινοί, χειρες δε ανδρειων πλουτιζουσιν. 3. £168 2

Ευλογια Κυριου επι κεφαλή δικαιου. 4, Μνημη δικαιων μετ'

εγκωμιων (understand εστι), ονομα δε ασεβούς σβεννυται. 5. £170 00 Μισος εγειρει νεικος. 6. Ος εκ χειλεων προσφερει σοφιαν, ραβδω

υπτει ανδρα ακαρδιον. 7. Ανηρ διγλωσσος αποκαλυπτει βουλας εν συνεδριω, πιστος δε πνοη κρυπτει πραγματα. 8. Γυνη σπουδαια

στεφανος το ανδρι. 9. Λογον αδικον μισει δικαιος, ασεβης £264 4 2 δε αισχυνεται. 10. Σιδηρος σιδηρον οξυνει, ανηρ δε παροξυνει 6 12 1 προσωπον έταιρου. 11. "Ωσπερ δροσος εν αμητα, και ωσπερ υετος

εν θερει, ούτως ουκ εστιν αφρoνι τιμη. 12. Ακανθαι φυονται εν 257 12 1 χειρι μεθυσμου, δουλεια δε εν χειρι των αφρονων. 13. Σοφια και

εννοια αγαθη εν πυλαις σοφων (απderstand εισιν): σοφοι ουκ

κκλινουσιν εκ στοματος Κυριου. 14. Αποθνησκει αφρων εν 257 12 11 αμαρτιαις. 15. Μη χαιρε επι κακοποιοις, μηδε ζηλου αμαρτωλούς.

16. Φοβου τον Θεον, υιε, και βασιλεα. 17. Λογοις σοφων παραβαλλε

σον ούς, και ακουε εμον λογον. 18. Ελεημοσυνη και αληθεια 226 2 4 φυλακη βασιλεί. 19. Κοσμος νεανιαις σοφια, δοξα δε πρεσβυτερων

πολιαι. 20. Πας ανηρ φαινεται εαυτω δικαιος, κατευθυνει δε €20 o ο καρδιας Κυριος. 21. Aκολαστον οινος, και υβριστικον μεθη, πας δε

αφρων τοιουτοις συμπλεκεται.


1. Ευφραινω, Irejoice (transitively); λυπη, ης, ή, grief.

2. Πενια, ας, ή, poverty και ταπεινοω, I lower, degrade ; ανδρειος, £200 0 0 -a, -ov, manly, excellent; THOUTCW, I make rich (from what noun

is the verb derived ?)

3. Ευλογια, ας, ή, a blessing (what are the components of

the noun ?) Kupuos, -ov, 6, lord, master, the Lord—that is, the €141 6 8 Almighty, in the Old Testament ; δικαιου for του δικαιου. The

article is often omitted in the Greek version of the Hebrew Scriptores. This version is called the Septuagint, sometimes

“the Seventy,” because said to have been made by that number £288 1 3 of learned Jews in Alexandria in Egypt; the translation was

completed in the second century before Christ. £600 0 0

4. Μνημη, -ης, ή, memory, the memory ; εγκωμιον, -ου, τo, praise,

eulogy, our word encomium ; ασεβης, -ούς, mpious, compare L600 00

σεβομαι, I worship και σβεννυμι, I extinguish; σβεννυται, is estinguished, that is, destroyed.

5. Μισος, -ούς, τo, hatred, connected with μισεα, I hate ;

VELKOS, -ows, To, strife; here is exemplified the remark that the £141

Seventy are given to the omission of the article, for in Attic
Greek this proposition would be το μισος έγειρει το νεικος. .

6. 'Os, the relative pronoun he who; χειλος, -ούς, το, α tips £600 6 ο ραβδος, -ου, ή, a stick, staf; ακαρδιος, -ον (from α, not, and

καρδια, the heart), heartless, senseless. £740 00 7. Διγλωσσος (from δις, twice, and γλωττα, ης, ή, a tongue),



double tongued ; atOKAUTTW (año, from, and KalvATW, I hide), emotion, anger ; OLKALOTUM, -75, Ý, justice, just designs ; katepI conceal ; Tvredpov, -ou, to, an assembly, hence our word yacouai (kata, donon, thoroughly, and epyov, a work), I accomsanhedrim, the name of the Jewish Parliament; avon, -95, y, a plish. breathing, breath; TIOTOS here would in classical Greek be 6. Γινομαι (the old form of γιγνομαι, compare γενος, α race, και πιστος.

a kind), I become; months, -ov, /, a doer, a maker, hence our 8. Stepavos, -ov, d, a crown, hence our proper name, Stephen. poet, the great maker, that is, inventor; arpoarns, -ov, å, a hearer,

9. Air xvyopat, I am ashamed of, from aloxos, -oüs, hatefulness, 7. OpNokelo, -as, i, service, God's service, religion; katapos, -a, shame.

-ov, pure ; aulavtos (ucouvw, I spot), unspotted; kul, even, that is, 10. Σιδηρος, -ου, δ, νοη; οξυνω, I sharpen; in παροξυνει, the ωτος, αύτη, τουτο, this ; επισκεπτομαι (επι, ουer, and σκεπτομαι, preposition Tapa strengthens the force of the verb; étalpos, I survey) I go to see, or visit ; from the same root is our bishop, -ov, d, a companion, friend.

that is, an overlooker, a superintendent ; oppavos, -ov, 8, our word 11. Auntos (from auaw, I bind in bundles), harvest time; orphan; xmpa, -as, y, a widow ; Octs, -Ews, y, affliction; avtwv, detas (from velv, Lat. pluere, to rain), rain; depos, -ovs, to, of them, their ; actios, -ov, unstained (onidos, a stain), topew, summer.

I keep, preserve. 12. Akarta, -ns, i, a thorn ; puw, I produce (Lat. fui, I was), 8. 'Ayvos, -77, -ov, chaste, holy; mwtov, in the first place, ETTEITA, ovoual, I am produced, I am born, I spring up; uedvouos (from then, in the second place; eLPNVIKOS (Elpnm, peace), peaceful; Metu, wine, strong drink), drunken ; appwv, -ovos (from a, and ETLElkns, mild; evteilns (Treibw, I persuade), easy to entreated; $9), senseless, fools.

MERTOS, -9), -ov, full ; adlakpitos (a, not, dia, through, kpivw, I dis13. Evvota, -as, , sense (from ev, in, and vous, the mind); tinguish), without partiality; aYUTOKPITOS (a, not, the v is interTOAT, -95, i, a gate ; EKKAIVW (ex, from, and kivw, I bend), I posed between the two vowels for the sake of euphony ; UTO, fun away.

under, and kpiw, hence our word hypocrite), without hypocrisy; 14. Apovoku (ano, from, and Ovnokw, I die), I die; épapria, TREX, I sow; TOLS TOLOVOiv, for those doing, that is, those who *s, i, sin; consult duapravw, already explained.

do or pursue. 15. Xanpw, I rejoice; KAKOTOLOS, -ov, ó (kakos, evil, and 9. Tobey, whence; EVTEVÕev, thence; Suwv, of you, your ; Totex, I do), an evil-doer ; Snow, I desire, envy; auaptwlos otpat evOMAI, I war; Twv otpat evouerwv, which make war ; (Quapraw), a sinner.

Meios, -ous, To, a limb, member ; Oulv, in you. 16. Poßeopal, I fear, reverence.

10. Moixos, -ov, ó, an adulterer ; uoixants, -idos, n, an adul17. Napabaliw (tapa, near, Baldw, I throw), I apply to; teress; Ouk oldate, know ye not ? exOpa, -as, y, hatred. ros, they, here the personal pronoun is used for the article, 11. 'Trepnpavos (útep, above, high, too much, and paivw, I ordinary Greek giving to oŷs ; euos, my.

show), haughty; aytiTaccouai (avti, against, and TAOTW, I set), 18. Edenuorum (from Aeos, pity), mercy; hence our word I array myself in opposition to ; TameLVOS, -, -ov, low, lowly, eleemosynary, which, through the old English almesse, is con- humble; dowol, he gives. tracted into alms.

12. Nopoletns (vouos, a law, and Tionui, I place), a lawgiver ; 19. lpedBurnp (our presbyter, whence our priest), an old man; Suvaual, I am able; & duvau evos, who is able ; oww, I save ; πολιος, -α, -ον, δαιά, grey; πολιαι, grey hairs (understand τριχες, απολλυμι, I destroy και σωσαι επά απολεσαι are infinitives governed hair).

by και δυναμενος. 20. Palvopar, I appear ; éavto, to himself ; katev

uvw, I direct, guide.

KEY TO EXERCISES FROM THE BOOK OF PROVERBS. 21. AKOMATTOS, -ov (a, not, and kolacw, I punish, restrict), wurestrainable, riotous ; Bpiotikos, -ov, insulting; ueon, -775, , his mother. 2. Poverty bringeth a man low, but the hands of the

1. A wise son maketh a glad father, but a foolish son is a grief to drmkenness;

; TOLOUTOS, such ; TOLOUTOLS, such things; outdek diligent make rich. 3. The blessing of the Lord is on the head of the (our, with, and TAEKW, I fold), I bind together; outleKETA!, is just. 4. The memory of the just is preserved with praise, but the catangled in, is chained to.

name of the impious is extinguished. 5. Hatred begetteth strife. 6. EXERCISES FROM THE NEW TESTAMENT.

He who applieth the wisdom of his lips striketh the senseless man (as)

with a staff. 7. The double-tongued man concealeth his thoughts in 1. Makaplos (understand eotu) amnp os Únojeve terpaduov. the assembly, but the faithful man concealeth only his deeds by speech. 2. 'EKAOTOS FEIPACETá ÚTO TIs Lolas etiOvulas. 3. 'H Erduula 8. A virtuous woman is a crown to her husband. 9. The just man TUKTE & uaptlay, Y de duaptia atokveL Bavarov. 4. Tlaça dools

ayaon hateth an unjust speech, and even the ungodly man is ashamed of it. και παν δωρημα τελειον ανωθεν εστι καταβαινον απο του Πατρος | 10. As iron sharpeneth iron, so a man sharpeneth the face of his TepowtWv. 5. Oprn av&pos O KALOOUVNY Oeou ou katepya(etal. friend. 11. As dew in harvest time, and as rain in summer, so is 6. Γινεσθε ποιηται λογου, και μη μονον ακροαται. 7. OpTokela bonour to one who is not indiscreet. 12. Thorns grow up in the καθαρα και αμιαντος παρα τω Θεω και Πατρι αυτη εστιν, επισκεπτεσθαι hand of a drunkard, and slavery in the hand of the foolish. appaveus kai xmpas e Tn Outer avtwV, ao imov autov Topelv Wisdom and good sense are in the gates (i.e., dwellings) of the wise, ατο του κόσμου, 8. 'Hawley copia TpWtov jev ayon EOTIV, fool perishes in his follies. 15. Rejoice not with them that do evil


and the wise turn not away from the mouth of the Lord. 14. The ETTEITA Envun, ETLELKNS, EUTELOns, uerTn EleOu kat kapwv nor emulate sinners. 16. Fear God, my son, and the king. 17. Turn αγαθων, αδιακριτος, ανυποκριτος, καρπος δε δικαιοσυνης εν ειρηνη |thing ear to the words of the wise, and hear my word. 18. Mercy and στειρεται τοις ποιουσιν ειρηνην. . 9. Nodev #ELot Kal olev truth are a king's defence. 19. Wisdom is an ornament to young men, kaya ev opty; OVK EVTevOev, eK TW hovwv uwv, TW otpatevo- and hoary hairs are the glory of old men. 20. Every man appears to himμενων εν τοις μελεσιν υμων; 10. Μοιχοι και μοιχαλιδες, ουκ self just, but the Lord directeth the heart. 21. Wine is a thing that σιδατε οτι η φιλια του κοσμου εχθρα του Θεου εστιν; 11. 'O eos is ungovernable; drunkenness is that which begetteth insolence, and υπερηφανους αντιτασσεται, ταπεινοις δε διδωσι χαριν.

12. Eis every foolish person is entangled in such things. εστιν ο νομοθέτης και κριτης, και δυναμενος σωσαι και απολεσαι. KEY TO EXERCISES FROM THE NEW TESTAMENT. The General Epistle of St. James.

1. Blessed is the man who endureth temptation. 2. Each man is VOCABULARY TO THE EXTRACTS FROM THE NEW TESTAMENT. forth death. 4. Every good gift and every perfect gift cometh down

tempted by his own lust. 3. Lust produceth sin, and sin bringeth 1. Makapios, -, -ov, happy, blessed ; ÚTouerw (úmo, under, and from above, the Father of lights. 5. The anger of man worketh not the MES, I remain), I endure ; feipaouos, -ov, : (Telpasw, I try, righteousness of God. 6. Become doers of the word, and not hearers tempt), trial.

only. 7. Pure and undefiled religion before God and the Father is 2. 'Exactos, -7, -ov, each, every ; 1dios, -a, -ov, one's own. this, to visit the orphans and widows in their affliction, and to keep 3. Afokve (ano, from, and xvw, I conceive, am pregnant), I himself unspotted from the world. 8. The wisdom that is from above bear, I bring forth; Bavaros, -ov, 8, death,

4. doris, news, , a giving ; ównua, -atas, to, a gift ; Tedetos, fruits, without partiality, without hypocrisy, and the fruit of righteous- Ov, perfect ; aywbev (ava), from above, the termination dev and whence are fightings among you, are they not thence even from

ness is sown in peace in those that pursue peace. 9. Whence are wars gives the idea of from, compare in Sentence 9, Tobey and your pleasures, which war in your limbs ? 10. Ye adulterers and adulcrtevev; kataBaiva (nata, down, and Barw, I go), I come teresses, know ye not that the friendship of the world is enmity down, Coti kat, literally, is coming down, is constantly coming against God? 11. God sets himself

against the

proud, and giveth down--a beautiful description of the constancy of the heavenly grace to the lowly. 12. There is one lawgiver and judge, who is able Father's goodness ; ows, Putos, TO, light,

to save and destroy. 5. Opm, -45, (the root of opeyouar), desire, effort, a strong Compare the above with the translation of the Bible now in use.






have then merely to divide the weight in B by that in A. The

result is exactly the same whichever way we adopt. The followSPECIFIC GRAVITY (continued)— ing, then, is the general rule : Divide the weight in air by the HYDROMETERS-TABLE OF SPECIFIC GRAVITIES. loss of weight in water, the quotient will be the specific gravity In our last lesson we examined the mode of ascertaining the of the substance.

Grains. specific gravity of a liquid, we must now see what is the mode

Thus, a stone weighed in air of procedure in the case of solids. Happily we are not limited

Immersed in water it weighed

174 to one method, there being several from which we can choose that which seems the most convenient for the special case in

Loss of weight in water hand. We will begin with the simplest. Suppose we have a

Its specific gravity, therefore, is 1: = 2.553. powder, or some small fragments of a solid substance insoluble in water, we should use the small flask shown at Fig. 13 in the liquid by weighing a substance in it, and then in water. Since

We can, on this principle, ascertain the specific gravity of a last lesson.

Fill the Alask with water, taking care to avoid bubbles, insert it displaces an equal bulk of each, the loss of weight in the the stopper, and, by a piece of rag or blotting-paper, adjust the liquid divided by the loss in water will give the required specific

gravity. level of the liquid to the mark on the neck; then carefully wipe

The two plans we have mentioned are used when the suboff all moisture adhering to the sides. Having put the flask into one scale, put the counterpoise into the other, and add stance is insoluble in water. Many crystals and chemical subweights till they balance ; you will thus obtain the weight of stances, whose specific gravity it is important to know, are, water which the flask holds. If the amount is already known, however, soluble, and therefore some other means must be

resorted to. this weighing may be dispensed with. Next, carefully weigh

We have first to find some liquid in which the substance is the substance whose specific gravity you want to ascertain. The stopper must now be removed from the flask, and the insoluble. Oil of turpentine will frequently be found to answer, powder or small fragments dropped in. They will, of course, or, for many substances, alcohol may be used. displace some of the water, which will flow over. The stopper weight of a volume of it equal in bulk to the substance, either

Having chosen the liquid, we proceed, as before, to find the must then be carefully replaced, the superfluous liquid wiped away, and the flask again weighed. The difference between by weighing the solid in it and ascertaining the loss of weight, this weight and the weight of the solid and water together will vity of the liquid, and from this, by the following equation, we

or by means of the flask. We then ascertain the specific grashow how much water is displaced—that is, the weight of a quantity of water equal in bulk to the solid. Divide the weight As the specific gravity of the liquid is to that of water (which

can ascertain the weight of a bulk of water equal to the solid. of the solid by this and we shall have the specific gravity re- is 1.) so the weight of the equal bulk of liquid is to that of the quired. Here is an example which will explain it better than a

same bulk of water. mere description can do.

We will illustrate this by an example recently set at an

Grains. Some pieces of brass wire were taken, the weight of which

examination. was found to be


A piece of blue vitriol weighs 3 ounces in vacuo and 1.86 in The bottle illed with water weighed :

502.0 oil of turpentine. What is its specific gravity, that of the

turpentine being 0.88 ? 603-0

Ounces. After an equal bulk of water was displaced by the brass, the

Sinoe it weighs in vacuo flask weighed . .


And in oil of turpentine only Therefore the water displaced weighed

It loses

And the specific gravity of the brass is = 8:145.


This, then, is what an equal bulk of turpentine weighs. Now Brass being a compound metal, composed of copper and zinc, if any bulk of it weighs 88 ounces, an equal bulk of water will

the specific gravity of the turpentine is 0.88; or, in other words, its specific gravity varies slightly according to the proportion weigh 100 ounces. in which they are mixed, the drawing of it into wire also makes to 1:14 ounces, weigh? The following equation tells us :

How much, then, will water, equal in volume a difference, as the particles are forced different distances apart. In ascertaining specific gravities, great care has to be taken

As 88 : 1.14 : : 100 : 1-295. to avoid air-bubbles. Some substances are full of pores, into This, therefore, is the weight of a volume of water equal in bulk which the air penetrates, and bubbles cling to the surface of to the vitriol, and hence the specific gravity is to 2.316. others, and materially interfere with the accuracy of the results. You will have noticed in the above example, that the weight When great exactness is required, the substance is dipped into of the blue vitriol is stated to be 3 ounces in vacuo. All bodies

the water when boiling, and ought strictly to be weighed in the absence of the air, as otherthus the air is expelled. It is wise we do not ascertain their true weight, but that amount then set by to cool down to less the weight of the air they displace. In practice, however, 60°, and weighed as before. the difference is so slight, that it is disregarded, and a body is

Another mode of ascertain. always weighed in air, and this taken as its true weight. A ing the specific gravity of any proof, however, that it does make a difference is seen in the

body is based on the principle fact that if we fill a small balloon with gas, and add weights, B of Archimedes, that a body im- so that it can only just ascend, it will apparently have no weight

mersed in liquid loses a portion at all. The real fact being, as we shall see when we come to
of its weight equal to that of treat of Pneumatics, that its weight is then just equal to that
an equal bulk of the liquid. of the air it displaces.
It is very simple, but requires There is still one class of substances whose specific gravity
care; a special arrangement of we cannot ascertain by any of the ways hitherto described ; it
the scales is also a great ad. is those which are lighter than water.

These, when immersed in water, seem to lose more than all
Fig. 14.

The body is first weighed in their weight, for they have a tendency to rise. We have, there

the ordinary way, a fine hair or fore, to proceed in a different way. A piece of metal is prothread having been fastened round it. It is then by this hair cured heavy enough to cause the substance, which we will suspended from a hook underneath the scale-pan, and allowed suppose to be a piece of wood, to sink when attached to it. to dip into a vessel of water, and the weight again ascertained. This sinker is weighed in air and then in water, so as to ascer: The difference between the two is the weight it loses in water tain the weight of water it displaces. It is then fastened to —that is, the weight of an equal bulk of water, and if we divide the wood, and the two together weighed in air and in water; we its weight in air by this, we obtain the specific gravity. Some- thus ascertain the weight of water they together displace. times the weights are left unaltered in B, and others added to From this we deduct the amount which is displaced by the A after the solid is immersed, till the scales again balance; wel metal, and thus find out the amount displaced by the wood

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3.0 1.86


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