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on another occasion by Dr. Grey. Dr. Grey's from the confines of Hungary. He adds that assertion may be supported by the following “they have been banished by most Christian passage in an old comedy called the “ Family princes. The great Turk at least tolerates of Love,”' 1608:
them near the imperial city: he is said to em"Can you think I get my living by a bell ploy them as spies: they were banished as and a clack-dish ?
such by the Emperor Charles the Fifth." By a bell and a clack-dish? How's that?
(5) Sir Thomas Browne, ut supra, p. 287, Why, begging, Sir,” &c.
says : “ Their first appearance was in Ger
many since the year 1400. Nor were they And by a stage direction in the second part of observed before in other parts of Europe, as “ King Edward IV." 1619: “Enter Mrs. is deducible from Munster, Genebrard, CrantBlague, very poorly,—begging with her bas- sius, and Ortelius.” ket and a clack-dish.” See Reed's edition of © Spelman's portrait of the Gipsy fraterShaksp. 1803, vol. vi. p. 325.
nity in his time, which seems to have been (8) Sir Thomas Browne, in his “Vulgar Er. taken ad vivum, is as follows: “ EGYPTIANI. rors,'' p. 286, gives this general account of the Erronum Impostorumque genus nequissimum : Gipsies : “ They are a kind of counterfeit in Continente ortum, sed ad Britannias nosMoors, to be found in many parts of Europe, tras et Europam reliquam pervolans :-nigreAsia, and Africa. They are commonly sup. dine deformes, excocti sole, immundi veste, posed to have come from Egypt, from whence et usu rerum omnium fædi. Fæminæ, cum they derive themselves. Munster discovered, stratis et parvulis, jumento invehuntur. Li. in the letters and pass which they obtained teras circumferunt Principum, ut innoxius from Sigismund the Emperor, that they first illis permittatur transitus. - Oriuntur quippe came out of Lesser Egypt; that having turned et in nostra et in omni Regione, spurci hujusapostates from Christianity and relapsed into modi nebulones, qui sui similes in GymnaPagan rites, some of every family were en sium sceleris adsciscentes ; vultum, cultum, joined this penance, to wander about the world. moresque supradictos sibi inducunt. Lin'Aventinus tells us, that they pretend, for this guam (ut exotici magis videantur) fictitiam vagabond course, a judgment of God upon blaterant, provinciasque vicatim pervagantes, their forefathers, who refused to entertain the auguriis et furtis, imposturis & technarum Virgin Mary and Jesus, when she fled into millibus plebeculam rodunt et illudunt, lintheir country.”
guam hanc Germani Rotwelch, quasi rubrum ( Yet Bellonius, who met great droves of Wallicum, id est Barbarismum, Angli CantGipsies in Egypt in villages on the banks of | ing nuncupant.” the Nile, where they were accounted strangers În “ The Art of Jugling and Legerdemaine," and wanderers from foreign parts, as with us, by S. R., 4to. 1612, signat. B b, is the followaffirms that they are no Egyptians. (Observat. ing account: “ These kinde of people about lib. ii.)
an hundred yeares agoe, about the twentieth It seems pretty clear that the first of yeare of King Henry the Eight, began to the Gipsies were Asiatic, brought hither gather an head, at the first heere about the by the crusaders, on their return from the southerne parts, and this (as I am informed, holy wars, but to these it is objected that and as I can gather) was their beginning. there is no trace of them to be found in history | Certaine Egiptians banished their cuntry (be. at that time.
like not for their good conditions) arrived Ralph Volaterranus affirms that they first heere in England, who, being excellent in quaint proceeded, or strolled, from among the Uxi, tricks and devises, not known heere at that time à people of Persia. Sir Thomas Browne cites among us, were esteemed and had in great Polydore Vergil as accounting them originally admiration, for what with strangeness of their Syrians: Philip Bergoinas as deriving them attire and garments, together with their sleights from Chaldea: Æneas Sylvius, as from some and legerdemaines, they were spoke of farre and part of Tartary : Bellonius, as from Wallachianeere, insomuch that many of our English and Bulgaria : and Aventinus as fetching them loyterers joyned with them, and in time learned
their crafte and cosening. The speach which men are all thieves, and the women libertines. they used was the right Egyptian language, They follow no certain trade, and have no with whome our Englishmen conversing with, | fixed religion. They do not enter into the orat last learned their language. These peo der of society, wherein they are only tolerated. ple continuing about the cuntry in this fashion, | It is supposed there are upwards of 40,000 of practising their cosening art of fast and loose them in Spain, great numbers of whom are and legerdemaine, purchased themselves great innkeepers in the villages and small towns, credit among the cuntry people, and got much and are everywhere fortune-tellers. In Spain by palmistry and telling of fortunes : inso they are not allowed to possess any lands, or much they pitifully cosened the poore contry even to serve as soldiers. They marry among girles, both of money, silver spones, and the themselves, stroll in troops about the country, best of their apparrell, or any good thing they and bury their dead under water. They are could make, onely to heare their fortunes.”— contented if they can procure food by showing “ This Giles Hather (for so was his name) feats of dexterity, and only pilfer to supply together with his whore Kit Calot, in short themselves with the trifles they want; so that space had following them a pretty traine, he they never render themselves liable to any terming himself the King of the Egiptians, severer chastisement than whipping for having and she the Queene, ryding about the cuntry stolen chickens, linen, &c. Most of the men at their pleasure uncontrolld.” He then men have a smattering of physic and surgery, and tions the statute against them of the 1st and are skilled in tricks performed by slight of 2nd of Philip and Mary, on which he observes : hand. The foregoing account is partly ex“But what a number were executed presently up tracted from “Le Voyageur Francois,' vol. on this statute, you would wonder : yet, not xvi., but the assertion that they are all so withstanding, all would not prevaile : but abandoned as that author says is too general.” still they wandred, as before, up and downe, (6) In a provincial council held at Tarraand meeting once in a yeere at a place ap gona in the year 1591 there was the following pointed : sometimes at the Devils A- in decree against them : “ Curandum etiam est Peake in Darbishire, and otherwhiles at Ket ut publici Magistratus eos coerceant qui se brooke by Blackheath, or elsewhere, as they Ægyptiacos vel Bohemianos vocant, quos vix agreed still at their meeting.” Speaking of constat esse Christianos, nisi ex eorum relahis own time, he adds : “ These fellows, seeing tione; cum tamen sint mendaces, fures, et that no profit comes hy wandring, but hazard deceptores, et aliis sceleribus multi eorum of their lives, do daily decrease and breake off
assueti." their wonted society, and betake themselves, The Gipsies are universally considered in many of them, some to be pedlers, some tink the same light, i. e. of cheats and pilferers. ers, some juglers, and some to one kinde of Witness the definition of them in Dufresne, life or other."
and the curious etchings of them by Callot. () Twiss, in his “ Travels,” gives the fol “Ægyptiaci," says Dufresne, “ vagi homines, lowing account of them in Spain : “They are harioli ac fatidici, qui hac & illac errantes ex very numerous about and in Murcia, Cordova, manus inspectione futura præsagire se fingunt, Cadiz, and Ronda. The race of these vaga ut de marsupiis incautorum nummos corrobonds is found in every part of Europe; the gent." The engraver does not represent them French call them Bohemiens; the Italians in a more favourable light than the lexicograZingari; the Germans, Ziegenners; the pher, for besides his inimitable delineations of Dutch, Heydenen (Pagans); the Portuguese, their dissolute manner of living, he has acSiganos; and the Spaniards, Gitanos; in Latin, companied his plates with verses which are Cingari. Their language, which is peculiar very far from celebrating their honesty. to themselves, is everywhere so similar, that Pasquier, in his “ Recherches de la France," they undoubtedly are all derived from the has the following account of them : “On same source. They began to appear in Europe August 17, 1427, came to Paris twelve Peniin the fifteenth century, and are probably a tents (Penanciers) as they called themmixture of Egyptians and Ethiopians. The i selves, viz. a duke, an earl, and ten men, all
on horseback, and calling themselves good l (9) In the “Gent. Mag." for Oct. 1785, Christians. They were of Lower Egypt, and vol. lv. p. 765, we read: “In a Privy Seal gave out that not long before the Christians Book at Edinburgh, No. xiv. fol. 59, is this had subdued their country, and obliged them entry : Letters of Defence and Concurrence to embrace Christianity, or put them to death. to John Fall, Lord and Earl of Little Egypt, Those who were baptized were great lords in for assisting him in the execution of Justice their own country, and had a king and queen upon his Company, conform to the Laws of there. Some time after their conversion, the Egypt, Feb. 15, 1540."" These are supposed Saracens overran their country and obliged to have been a gang of Gipsies associated tothem to renounce Christianity. When the Em gether in defiance of the state, under Fall as peror of Germany, the King of Poland, and their head or king: and these the articles of other Christian princes, heard this, they fell up association for their internal government, mu. on them and obliged them all, buth great and tual defence, and security, the embroiled and small, to quit their country and go to the infirm state of the Scotch nation at that time Pope at Rome, who enjoined them seven years' not permitting them to repress or restrain a penance to wander over the world without combination of vagrants who had got above Īying in a bed; every bishop and abbot to the laws and erected themselves into a sepagive them once 10 livres tournois, and he gave I rate community as a set of banditti. them letters to this purpose, and his blessing. (10) In “ Lodge's Illustrations of British
« They had been wandering five years when History,” &c., vol. i. p. 135, is a curious they came to Paris. They were lodged by Letter of the Justices of Durham to the Earl the police out of the city, at Chapel St. Denis. of Shrewsbury, Lord President of the Council Almost all had their ears bored, and one or in the North, dated at Duresme, Jan. 19th, two silver rings in each, which they said was 1549, concerning the Gipsies and Faws. esteemed an ornament in their country. The “Pleasyth yogood Lordship t’understaund, men were very black, their hair curled; the John Roland, oon of that sorte of people calwomen remarkably ugly and black, all their linge themsellfes Egiptians, dyd before us acfaces scarred (deplayez), their hair black, like cuse Babtist Fawe, Amy Fawe, and George a horse's tail, their only habit an old shaggy Fawe, Egiptians, that they had counterfeate garment (flossoye) tied over their shoulders the kyngs maties greate seale: wherupon we with a cloth or cord-sash, and under it a poor caused th' above named Baptist, Amye, and petticoat or shift. In short they were the George, to be apprehended by th'officers, who, poorest wretches that had ever been seen in emongst other things, dyd find one wryting France; and, notwithstanding their poverty, with a greate seall moche like to the kings there were among them women who, by look maties great seall, which we, bothe by the ing into people's hands, told their fortunes wrytinge, and also by the seall, do suppose to et meirent contens en plusieurs mariages : for be counterfeate and feanyd; the which seall they said, Thy wife has played thee false we do send to your L. herwith, by post, for (Ta femme ta fait coup), and what was triall of the same. Signifieing also to yo" L. worse, they picked people's pockets of their that we have examynet the said Babtist, money and got it into their own by telling Amye, and George, upon the said matter; these things by art, magic, or the intervention who doithe afferme and saye, with great othes of the Devil, or by a certain knack.” Thus and execracions, that they never dyd see the Pasquier. It is added that they were expelled said seall before this tyme, and that they dyd from France in 1561.
not counterfeate it; and that the said John In the Statistical Account of Scotland," Roland is their mortall enemye, and haithe vol. ii. p. 124, parish of Eaglesham, county often tymes accused the said Babtist before of Renfrew, we read: “There is no magistrate this, and is moche in his debte, as appeareth nearer than within four miles; and the place by ther wrytinges redy to be shewed, for the is oppressed with gangs of Gipsies, commonly whiche money the said John doithe falsly all called tinkers, or randy-beggars, because there he can agaynst them, and, as they suppose, is nobody to take the smallest account of the above-named John Roland, or some of them,"
his complices, haithe put the counterfeate Says who shall wed, and who shall be beseall emongst there wryfyngs; with such lyke
guil'd, sayngs. Wherfor we have co'mit all th above What groom shall get, and 'squire maintain named Egiptians to the gaoll of Duresme, to
the child." such tyme as we do knowe your L. pleasor Rogers, in his “Pleasures of Memory," in the premises. And thus Almightie God 1. 107, has also described the Gipsy : preserve your good L. in moche honor. At “ Down by yon bazel copse, at evening, blaz'd Duresme this 19th of Januarye, 1549.
The Gipsy's fagot. - There we stood and Yor Lordship's assured,
gaz'd; George CONYERS,
Gazd on her sun burnt face with silent awe, Robert HYNDMERS, Her tatter d mantle, and her hood of straw; CUTHBERTT CONYERS, Her moving lips, her caldron brimming JERRERD SALVEYN.
o'er; To the right honorable and or sing'ler good The drowsy brood that on her back she Lord th’ Erll of Shrewisburye, Lord Pre
bore, sident of the Kyng's Maties Counsell in Imps, in the barn with mousing owlet bred, the Northe.
From rifled roost at nightly revel fed; (11) There is a well-known Scottish song
Whose dark eyes flash'd thro’ locks of blackentitled “Johnny Faa, the Gypsie Laddie."
est shade, There is an advertisement in the “Newcastle
When in the breeze the distant watch-dog Courant," July 27, 1754, offering a reward
bay'd: for the apprehending of John Fall and Mar
And heroes fled the Sibyl's mutter'd call, garet his wife, William Fall and Jane, other
Whose elfin prowess scal'd the orchard wise Ann, his wife, &c., “ commonly called
wall. or known by the name of Fawes," &c.
As o'er my palm the silver piece she drew, Gipsies still continue to be called “Faws"
And trac'd the line of life with searching
view, in the North of England.
How throbb‘d my fluttering pulse with (12) Gay, in his “ Pastorals," speaking of a
hopes and fears girl who is slighted by her lover, thus de
To learn the colour of my future years!" cribes the Gipsies :
Strype, in his “Annals of the Reforma“ Last Friday's eve, when as the sun was set, tion," vol. ii. p. 611, mentions a book written
I, near yon stile, three sallow Gipsies met; by William Bullein “ Of Simples and SurUpon my hand they cast a poring look, gery," A. D. 1562, in which the author speaks Bid me beware, and thrice their heads they of " dog-leaches, and Egyptians, and Jews: all shook :
pretending to the telling of fortunes and curing They said that many crosses I must prove, by charms. They (dog-leaches) buy some Some in my worldly gain, but most in love. gross stuff, with a box of salve and cases of Next morn I miss'd three hens and our old tools, to set forth their slender market withal, cock,
&c. Then fall they to palmistry and telling And, off the hedge, two pinners and a of fortuues, daily deceiving the simple. Like smock.” The Ditty.
unto the swarms of vagabonds, Egyptians, and The following beautiful lines on the same
some that call themselves Jews : whose eyes subject are from Prior's “ Henry and Emma."
were so sharp as lynx. For they see all the
people with their knacks, pricks, domifying, Henry is personating a Gipsy.
and figuring, with such like fantasies. Fain“ A frantic Gipsy now the house he haunts, | ing that they have familiers and glasses, whereAnd in wild phrases speaks dissembled by they may find things that be lost. And, wants :
besides them, are infinite of old doltish witches With the fond maids in palmistry he deals; with blessings for the fair and conjuring of They tell the secret first which he reveals : 1 cattel.”
OBSOLETE VULGAR PUNISHMENTS.
A TUMBREL, () TRIBUCH, (a) AND TREBUCHET; (b) ALSO A THEW.8)
“We have different modes of restraining evil. Stocks for the man; a Ducking-stool for WOMEN ;
and a pound for beasts."-Johnson. See Boswell's Life of Johnson, vol. iii. p. 313.
The Cucking-stool was an engine invented to be ducked for scolding, and was accordfor the punishment of scolds and unquiet | ingly placed in the chair, and ducked in the women, by ducking them in the water, after River Thames, under Kingston Bridge, in the having placed them in a stool or chair fixed presence of 2000 or 3000 people." at the end of a long pole, by which they were These stools (6) seem to have been in comimmerged in some muddy or stinking pond.
mon use when Gay wrote his “ Pastorals :" Blount tells us that some think it a corruption
they are thus described in the Dumps, 1. 105 : from Ducking-stool, (8) but that others derive it from Choking-stool. (4) Though of the
“I'll speed me to the pond, where the high most remote antiquity, it is now, it should
On the long plank hangs o'er the muddy seem, totally disused.
Mr. Lysons, in his “ Environs of London," vol. i. p. 233, gives us a curious extract from
That stool, the dread of ev'ry scolding the churchwardens' and chamberlain's ac
quean," &c. counts at Kingston-upon-Thames, in the year
In his xlviiith. vol. (MS. Brit. Mus.) p. 1572, which contains a bill of expenses (5) for 172, Cole says, “In my time, when I was a making one of these Cucking-stools, which, boy, and lived with my grandmother in the he says, must have been much in use formerly, great corner house at the bridge foot next to as there are frequent entries of money paid Magdalen College, Cambridge, and re-built for its repairs. He adds, that this arbitrary since by my uncle, Mr. Joseph Cock, I reattempt at laying an embargo upon the female member to have seen a woman ducked for tongue has long since been laid aside. It scolding. was continued, however, at Kingston to a late
“The chair hung by a pulley fastened to a period, as appears from the following para beam about the middle of the bridge, in which graph in the “London Evening Post,” April the woman was confined, and let down under 27 to 30, 1745: “ Last week a woman the water three times, and then taken out. that keeps the Queen's Head alehouse at
The bridge was then of timber, before the preKingston, in Surrey, was ordered by the court
sent stone bridge of one arch was builded. The Ducking-stool was constantly hanging in
its place, and on the back panel of it was en(a) See Cowel, in v. ex Carta Joh. regis, dat. 11 Jun. anno regni 1.
graved devils laying hold of scolds, &c. Some (b) It is so called in Lambarde's “Eirenarchia,"
time after a new chair was erected in the place lib, i. c. 12.
of the old one, having the same devils carved