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duchess of Bedford departed with their attendants, and went from Hesdin to Abbeville, where they staid some time. They thence went to Crotoy, where the duke d’Alençon was prisoner, whom the regent sent for into his presence, and reasoned long to prevail on him to take
the oath of allegiance to king Henry of Lancaster, as then he would be released from his confinement, and all his lands and lordships restored to him, adding, that should he refuse to comply, he would run much personal danger. The duke d’Alençon replied, that he was firmly resolved never, during his life, to take any oath contrary to his loyalty to king Charles of France, his true and legal lord. On hearing this answer, the regent ordered him from his presence into confinement, and then passing through the country of Caux, returned to Paris.
During the time the regent was at Hesdin, the bastard de St. Pol and Andrew de Humieres * appeared there with silver rings on their right arms, whereon was painted 2 sun with its rays. They had put them on as a challenge to the English and their allies, maintaining that duke John of Brabant had a more just right to the government and possession of Hainault and the other territories of Jacqueline of Bavaria, his lady, than the duke of Gloucester. The regent was at first desirous that these rings should be taken from them by some of his men, for he had been given to understand that their wearing them was owing to another quarrel, for which they wanted to fight with the English ; but, in the end, he was well satisfied with them,—and nothing farther was done in the matter.
When the duke of Gloucester was returned to London, he was sharply reprimanded by the council, in presence of the young king Henry, on his expedition into Hainault, and on
* Dreux de Humieres, son of Philip, and brother of Matthew lord de Humieres.
the manner in which he had conducted himself in regard to the duke of Burgundy, the most potent prince of the blood-royal of France: he was much blamed, because they said from such conduct a coolness might arise between the king and the duke, the alliances between them broken, and all their conquests in France lost. The duke of Gloucester was plainly told, that he would not, in this business, have any aid of men or money from the king, which very much dissatisfied him, but, at the moment, he could not remedy it.
CHAPTER XXXIII.—THE SULTAN OF EGYPT AND SARACENS DETERMINE TO CONQUER THE
WHOLE KINGDOM OF CYPRUS. When the Saracens, whom we have before mentioned, left Cyprus, they waited on the sultan, and, as a sign of their victory, carried with them the head and spurs of the knight whom they had slain with a lance. They proclaimed throughout the town of Cairo that it was the head of the brother to the king of Cyprus, Henry prince of Galilee, – but in this they lied. Nevertheless, the sultan and his courtiers were so much puffed up with this victory, that they resolved to raise so large an army as should destroy the whole kingdom of Cyprus. There was at this time in the town of Damascus a great, powerful, and rich Saracen, who was considered throughout Syria as a saint : he was much reverenced by the sultan, although a cordial friend to the king of Cyprus.
When this holy man heard of the destruction which the six Saracen galleys had done in Cyprus, he went to Cairo, and reproved and blamed the sultan for having thus commenced a war, insomuch that the sultan repented of what he had done, and consented that a peace should be made. To accomplish this purpose the holy Saracen determined to send his son to Cyprus to treat thereof; but, on his arrival in the island, the king would not admit him to his presence, but sent his ministers to inquire into his business. He would not explain the cause of his coming to them, but said, if he could have a personal interview with the king, he would engage that an honourable peace should be made with the sultan. The ministers of the king of Cyprus remonstrated with him on the folly of the sultan in beginning the war, because he would have all Christendom against him. The Saracen replied, that the sultan was perfectly well informed of the state of Christendom ; that the king of France, his most mortal enemy, had now so much on his hands that he no way feared him.
After this conversation, he returned to his father in Damascus, and related to him the reception he had met with in Cyprus, and that the king would not even see or hear him. The holy man was so much exasperated against the king of Cyprus, that he became ever after his most mortal enemy, and was continually urging the sultan to make war on Cyprus, declaring there could be no doubt but that he would be victorious over his enemies.
CHAPTER XXXIV.-THE DUKE OF BURGUNDY MAKES GREAT PREPARATIONS TO COMBAT THE
DUKE OF GLOUCESTER.-OTHER MATTERS. The duke of Burgundy lost no time in making his preparations, as well in armour as in housings for his horses, to be ready for the day of combat with the duke of Gloucester. The greater part of his armour he had forged within his castle of Hesdin. He also exercised himself with all diligence, and was very abstemious, the better to strengthen his breath; for in truth he was very impatient for the arrival of the day, that he might combat his enemy, as he well knew that his brother-in-law the regent and his council were endeavouring by all means to procure a reconciliation, and that measures for the same effect were pursuing with the duke of Gloucester in England. In the mean time, the regent ordered the earl of Salisbury to besiege the castle of Rambouillet, in the possession of king Charles's partisans, who at times made excursions even to the gates of Paris, and heavily oppressed the people. The castle held out some time, and then surrendered to the earl, on condition that the garrison should carry away their effects.
About the feast of St. John Baptist, the people of Tournay again rebelled, and gained the government of the town to rule it as it had formerly been done by one named Passecarte, with another called Blarie and others of low degree, who for their misconduct had been banished the town. The populace, however, with displayed banners, and in arms, brought them back in triumph, and replaced them in their situations contrary to the will of the higher ranks of burghers and the magistrates, some of whom were imprisoned, and in great danger of their lives; but all was after some time appeased.
In this year, the sultan of Egypt required the aid of the king of Tunis to carry on his war against Cyprus, which was granted him. He then collected the largest possible force of armed vessels from all his dependencies, which he victualled and filled with men, and sent them, under the command of one of his admirals, to make a descent on Cyprus near to Famagousta, where, having effected a landing, they overran the country, and committed innumerable mischiefs. At this period the king of Cyprus lay dangerously ill; for which reason he appointed his brother, the prince of Galilee, captain and commander-in-chief of his army. The prince collected the whole force of Cyprus, and advanced to where the Saracens were to offer them combat; but they, having intelligence of his motions, retreated to their vessels.
The prince pursued them; but when near to them he found that the greater part of his vessels had deserted, which forced him to return to Nicosia ; and the Saracens relanded, behaving worse than they had done before, so that the country was destroyed wherever they came. After they had gorged themselves with plunder and rapine, they returned to Syria with numbers of Christian prisoners. They carried off with them a gentleman of high renown, called Ragonnet de Picul, who had been taken in the large tower of Lymissa, and presented him to the sultan, for he had defended himself like a man of valour.
The sultan attempted strongly to persuade him to renounce the religion of Jesus Christ, promising to make him a great lord if he would do so; but he would never listen to such proposals, and even in the presence of the sultan contemned the doctrines of Mohammed, which so much exasperated the sultan, that he caused his body to be sawn in twain. It was afterward assured for truth, by many persons worthy of belief, that on the spot where he had been buried they saw a crown of fire descend from heaven to earth, and repose on the aforesaid grave.
When the earl of Salisbury had conquered the castle of Rambouillet, he went to lay siege to the town of Mans St. Julien. Having surrounded it, he was some time combating the garrison with his engines of war; but the inhabitants, despairing of succour, offered to capitulate.
The bishop and other churchmen waited on the earl, and with all humility besought him to take pity on them, to avoid further effusion of Christian blood. The earl inclined to their prayers, and concluded a treaty, that if within eight days they were not relieved by king Charles's party, they were to surrender the town, with all its artillery, arms and stores, and to swear allegiance to king Henry. In return, they were to enjoy all their effects unmolested. Upon this they gave sufficient hostages for their due performance of the above; and as they were not succoured by any one, they delivered the town up to the earl of Salisbury, who, after placing a new garrison within it, returned to the duke of Bedford at Rouen.
CHAPTER Xxxv.-- TIE DUCHESS JACQUELINE OF BAVARIA ESCAPES IN DISGUISE FROM
GIIENT, AND GOES TO HOLLAND. The duchess Jacqueline, finding her confinement in Ghent very irksome, began about the beginning of September to look for means of escape. One evening, when her guards were at supper, she dressed herself in man's clothes, as did one of her women, and quitting her apartments unobserved, they mounted horses which were waiting for them, and, escorted by two men, rode off full gallop from Ghent to Antwerp, where she reassumed her female dress, and thence proceeded on a car to Breda, and to la Garide *, where she was honourably received, and obeyed as their princess.
• La Garide. Q. if not meant for Gertruydenberg?
She there ordered the lord de Montfort, her principal adviser, to meet her, and many of the noble barons of Holland, to take council with them on the state of her affairs. Knowledge of this event was soon carried to the duke of Burgundy, who was much troubled thereat, and sent in haste for men-at-arms from all quarters; he collected numerous vessels to pursue the duchess into Holland, whither he also went in person. On his arrival in Holland, many of the principal towns opened their gates to him, such as Haerlem, Dordrecht, Rotterdam, and some others. Then began a serious war between the duke of Burgundy and the duchess Jacqueline of Bavaria, his cousin-german.
CHAPTER XXXVI.—THE DUKE OF BEDFORD PREVENTS THE COMBAT BETWEEN THE DUKES
OF BURGUNDY AND GLOUCESTER.-OTHER EVENTS. In the month of September, the duke of Bedford, who styled himself regent of France, assembled in the city of Paris many of the nobles of France, some learned men from the three estates, and the ambassadors from England, to consider on the combat that had been declared between the dukes of Burgundy and of Gloucester. Having for several days discussed the origin of this quarrel, and all matters appertaining thereto in council, it was concluded, after mature deliberation, that there was no cause for a combat; and, although a day had been fixed for it to take place, it was annulled ; and it was declared that neither party was bound to make any satisfaction to the other. There were present at this meeting, on the part of the duke of Burgundy, the bishop of Tournay; from the duke of Gloucester the bishop of London ; each of them attended by some of their lord's council.
On the 17th of this same month, the marriage between Charles de Bourbon count de Clermont, son and heir to the duke of Bourbon, a prisoner in England, and Agnes, sister to the duke of Burgundy, was solemnly celebrated in the city of Autun. The duchess-dowager of Burgundy, sister to the duke de Bourbon, was present at the ceremony and feasts; and, when they were finished, she returned to Dijon, where she suddenly departed this life, and was buried in the church of the Carthusians, without the walls of Dijon, being followed to the grave by the universal sorrow and lamentations of the Burgundians, who loved her much ; for she was a good and pious lady toward God and man.
In this year, an embassy was sent to the holy father in Rome from the two kingdoms of France and England, consisting of the abbot of Orcamp and two knights from France, and of the abbot of Beaulieu and two knights from England, to summon the pope (in like manner as had been done previously to the last general council held at Constance) to convoke a council to perfect and accomplish those things that had been left unfinished at the last council, notifying to him, at the same time, that he had too long delayed this, which was hurtful to the universal church.
In this year, a great quarrel took place in England between the duke of Gloucester and the cardinal of Winchester*. The cause of this discord arose from the duke wishing to have the government of his nephew the young king, who had been by his father king Henry given in wardship to the cardinal. The cardinal, overpowered by force, was constrained to take refuge from the duke of Gloucester, in the tower of London, where he remained six days, without daring to venture abroad, for eight or ten of his people had been slain. At length peace was made between them; and the parliament was assembled to take cognizance of their dispute. During its sitting, the young king Henry was frequently brought thither, and seated on the royal throne; the earl-marshalt was then created a duke. This parliament lasted a considerable time, in which many weighty matters were discussed, relative to affairs in France as well as in England.
In the month of December the duke and duchess of Bedford, attended by about five hundred combatants, left Paris for Amiens, where they stayed some days. While the duke was at Amiens, there were in that neighbourhood about a thousand pillagers, well mounted,
• Henry, second son of John duke of Lancaster, and † Thomas Mowbray, duke of Norfolk brother of John earl of Somerset and Thomas duke of Exeter, called Cardinal Beaufort.
under the command of one Sauvage de Fermanville, who was not in favour with the regent. Sauvage was quartered at Esclusiers, near Peronne, and hearing that the duke was to leave Amiens for Dourlens, lightly accompanied, was in hopes of taking him by surprise, and to this effect he marched his men from Esclusiers, and hastily advanced to Beauquesne, where he halted; but the duke had passed by, and was lodged in Dourlens, and thence went to Calais, by St. Pol and Therouenne. He embarked from Calais to England, whither he went to reprimand and check his brother Humphrey of Gloucester, for his conduct toward the duke of Burgundy. When the duke of Bedford learned the intentions of Sauvage de Fermanville he was very indignant, and so managed that some time afterward he was severely punished, as you shall hear, for this and others of his evil deeds.
CHAPTER XXXVII.- THE LORD FITZWALTER ARRIVES IN HOLLAND TO THE AID OF THE
DUCHESS JACQUELINE. While the duke of Burgundy was carrying on a deadly warfare in Holland against his cousin the duchess Jacqueline, about five hundred English, all picked men, arrived at Zuricksee in Zealand, under the command of the lord Fitzwalter *, calling himself lieutenant for the duke of Gloucester in the countries of Holland and Zealand. This body of men advanced toward the duchess to aid her to support the war.
The duke of Burgundy was at Leyden when he heard of the landing of this reinforcement; he departed thence with about four thousand combatants, whom he had assembled from his different territories, and marched to Rotterdam, where he embarked with the intent to meet the English and offer them battle. In the mean time, a party of Burgundians, falling in with them, were defeated, blain, or made prisoners by the English. The duke having had intel. ligence that his enemies, Dutch, Zealanders, and English, amounted to from two to three thousand combatants, and were at the port of Branverst en une aduene, he marched thither, and made so successful an attack on them that they were soon discomfited. From seven to eight hundred of his enemies lay dead on the field ; the rest fled in great confusion toward the sea-shore, and great part saved themselves on board their vessels. Among those who escaped were the lord Fitzwalter and the lord de Hentredée. On the part of the duke of Burgundy, the only man of note that was killed, was sir Andrew de Valines; Robert de Brimeu was carried away so badly wounded that he died thereof. After this victory, the duke collected his men around him, and most humbly returned thanks to his Creator for the fortunate issue of the day. Having strengthened the garrisons of those towns under his obedience, he returned to Flanders to collect reinforcements to carry on his war in Holland against the duchess with greater vigour.
On the duke of Burgundy's leaving Holland, the duchess Jacqueline assembled a large force, and led it before Haerlem, which she closely blockaded. The captains for the duke within the town were the damoiseau Ysambergue and sir Roland de Hultquerre knight, with a sufficient garrison. During the siege, sir John de Hultquerre, son to sir Roland, assembled in haste a body of men, from seven to eight hundred of nobles and common people, from Flanders, whom he conducted into Holland by forced marches to succour his father; but his intentions were known to the duchess, who detached a force to meet him ; and he was found near the sea with his men in great disorder, so that when attacked, he was speedily routed; the greater part were made prisoners, and the others escaped with sir John de Hultquerre. The duchess was delighted with her victory, but cruelly caused the prisoners to be put to death ; and after this, from fear of the arrival of the duke of Burgundy, who was raising an immense army in Flanders and Artois, she raised the siege of Haerlem.
In this year the earl of Salisbury besieged the castle of Moyennes in Champagne, which was beyond measure strong and well garrisoned with men-at-arms. During the siege there
* Walter Fitzwalter, fifth in descent from the great + Branvers. Q. Brouvershaven? baron Fitzwalter of king John's days. He was made prisoner at the battle of Baugé.