we call our merits: they be certain seminaries of hope, incitements of love, signs of secret predestination, foretokens of future happiness, the way to the kingdom, not the cause of reigning. Dangerous” is the dwelling of them that trust in their merits : dangerous, because ruinous. For this is the whole merit of man,if he put all his trust in him who saveth the whole man. Therefore my merit is the mercy of the Lord. I am not poor in merit, so long as he is not poor in mercy: and if the mercies of the Lord be many, my merits also are many." With which that passage of the Manual, falsely fathered upon St. Augustine, doth accord so justly, that the one appeareth to be plainly borrowed from the other. “ Alle my hope is in the death of my Lord. His death is my merit, my refuge, my salvation, life and resurrection. My merit is the mercy of the Lord.

of the Lord. I am not poor in merit, so long as the Lord of mercies shall not fail : and as long as his mercies are much, much am I in merits."

Neither are the testimonies of the schoolmen wanting in this cause. For where God is affirmed to “ give the

sunt seminaria, charitatis incentiva, occultæ prædestinationis indicia, futuræ felicitatis præsagia, via regni, non causa regnandi. Bernard. in fine libri de grat. et lib, arbitr.

p Periculosa habitatio eorum qui in meritis suis sperant ; periculosa, quia ruinosa. Id. in Psal. Qui habitat. serm. 1.

9 Hoc enim totum hominis meritum, si totam spem suam ponat in eo qui totum hominem salvum facit. Ibid. ser. 15.

r Meum proinde meritum, miseratio Domini. Non plane sum meriti inops, quandiu ille miserationum non fuerit. Quod si misericordiæ Domini multæ, multis nihilo minus ego in meritis sum. Id. in Cant. serm. 61.

$ Tota spes mea est in morte Domini mei. Mors ejus meritum meum, refu. gium meum, salus, vita et resurrectio mea. Meritum meum miseratio Domini. Non sum meriti inops, quamdiu ille miserationum Dominus non defuerit : et misericordiæ Domini multæ, multus ego sum in meritis. Manual. cap. 22. tom. app. 6. operum Augustini.

Nota quod cum dicitur, Deus pro bonis meritis dabit vitam æternam; pro, primo notat signum, vel viam, vel occasionem aliquam: sed si dicatur, propter bona merita dabit vitam æternam ; propter, notat causam efficientem. Ideo non recipitur a quibusdam : sed hanc recipiunt, pro bonis meritis, et consimiles earum ; assignantes differentiam inter pro, et propter. Georg. Cassand. epist. 19. ad Jo. Molinæum oper. pag. 1109. ex libro M$. vetusti cujusdam scholiastici.

kingdom of heaven for good merits” or good works: some made here a difference betwixt pro bonis meritis and propter bona merita. The former, they said, did note a sign, or a way, or some occasion: and in that sense they admitted the proposition. But according to the latter expression, they wonld not receive it ; because propter did note an efficient cause. And yet for the salving of that also, the cardinal of Cambray, Petrus de Alliaco delivereth us this distinction : “ This word propter is sometimes taken by way of consequence; and then it noteth the order of the following of one thing upon another: as when it is said, The reward is given for the merit. For nothing else is signified thereby, but that the reward is given after the merit, and not but after the merit. Sometimes again it is taken causally.” And “ forasmuch as a cause also is accounted that, upon the being whereof another thing doth follow: a thing may be said to be a cause two manner of ways. One way properly; when upon the presence of the being of the one, by the virtue thereof and out of the nature of the thing there followeth the being of the other: and thus is fire the cause of heat. Another way improperly; when upon the presence of the being of the one there followeth the being of the other, yet not by the virtue thereof nor out of the nature of the thing, but only out of the will of another : and so a meritorious act is said to be a cause in respect of the reward; as causa sine qua


u Hæc dictio propter quandoque capitur consecutive ; et tunc denotat ordinem consecutionis unius rei ad aliam : ut cum dicitur : Præmium datur propter meri

Nihil enim aliud significatur, nisi quod post meritum datur præmium, et non nisi post meritum : sicut alias patebit in materia de merito. Quandoque vero capitur causaliter. Pet. Cameracens. in 1. sent. dist. 1. quæst. 2. DD.

* Quia enim causa est illud ad cujus esse sequitur aliud; dupliciter potest aliquid dici causa. Uno modo proprie ; quando ad præsentiam esse unius, virtute ejus et ex natura rei sequitur esse alterius : et sic ignis est causa caloris. Alio modo improprie; quando ad præsentiam esse unius sequitur esse alterius, non tamen virtute ejus nec ex natura rei, sed ex sola voluntate alterius : et sic actus meritorius dicitur causa respectu præmii. Sic etiam causa sine qua non dicitur

Ex quo sequitur, quod causa sine qua non, non debet absolute et simpliciter dici causa ; quia proprie non est causa. Id. in 4. sentent. quæst. 1. artic. 1. D.


non also is said to be a cause, though it be none properly."

Among those famous clerks that lived in the family of Richard Angervill bishop of Durham in the days of Edward the third; Thomas Bradwardin who was afterwards archbishop of Canterbury, Richard Fitzraufe afterward archbishop of Armagh, and Robert Holcot the Dominican, were of special note. The first of these, in his defence of the cause of God against the Pelagians of his time, disputeth this point at large : shewing, that' merit is not the cause of everlasting reward; and that when the scriptures and doctors do affirm, that God will reward the good for their good merits (or works) propter did not signify the cause properly, but improperly, either the cause of knowing it, or the order, or the disposition of the subject thereunto. Richard of Armagh (whom my countrymen commonly do call St. Richard of Dundalk, because he was there born and buried) intimateth this to be his mind ; that the reward is here rendered, “not for the condignity of the work, but for the promise and so for the justice of the rewarder :" as heretofore we have heard out of Bernard. Holcot, though in words he maintain the merit of condignity; yet he confesseth with the master of the sentences, that God is hereby made our debtor, ex natura sui promissi, non ex natura nostri commissi, out of the nature of his own promise, not out of the nature of our doing : and that our works have this value in them, not naturally, as if there were so great goodness in the nature or substance of the merit that everlasting life should be due unto it, but legally, in regard of God's ordinance and appointment, even “as a little piece of cop

* Is in laudatissima illa summa contra Pelagianos copiose et erudite disputat, meritum non esse causam æterni præmii : cumque scriptura et doctores confirment, Deum præmiaturum bonos propter merita sua bona ; propter, non significare causam proprie, sed improprie, vel causam cognoscendi, vel ordinem, vel denique dispositionem subjecti. Georg. Cassand. epist. 19. ut supra. Vid. ipsum Bradwardini opus, edit. Lond. ann. 1618. a pag. 350. ad 353.

y Non propter condignitatem operis, sed propter promissionem et sic propter justitiam præmiantis. Armachan. in quæst. Armenorum, lib. 12. cap. 21.

? Sicut parva pecunia cupri, ex natura sua sive naturali vigore, non valet tan

per of its own nature or natural value, is not worth so much as a loaf of bread; but by the institution of the prince is worth so much.' And in this manner “ wea may say,” saith he, “that our works are worthy of life everlasting by grace, and not by the substance of the act. For God hath ordained, that he that worketh well in grace should have life everlasting: and therefore by the law and grace of Christ our prince we merit condignly everlasting life.” Whereby we may see, how rightly it hath been observed by Vasquez; that divers of those whom he accounteth Catholics, do differ from us only in words, but agree in deed. Of which number he nameth Willielmus Parisiensis', Scotus“, Ockamo, Gregorius Ariminensis', Gabriel Biels, with his supplement", the Canons of Culleyn in their Antididagma', and Enchiridionk, Johannes Bunderius', Alphonsus de Castro", and Andreas

tum, sicut unus panis ; sed ex institutione principis tantum valet. Rob. Holcot. in lib. sapient. cap. 3. lect. 36.

a Possumus dicere, quod opera nostra sunt condigna vitæ æternæ ex gratia, non ex substantia actus. Statuit enim Deus quod bene operans in gratia habebit vitam æternam. Et ergo per legem et gratiam Principis nostri Christi meremur de condigno vitam æternam. Ibid.

b Contingere enim potest, ut si veram causam et rationem meriti non assignemus; verbis solum ab hæreticis dissidentes reipsa cum eis conveniamus, atque in eorum sententiam, velimus nolimus, consentire cogamur : quod sane aliquibus catholicis in hac controversia accidisse, non obscure inferius patebit. Gabr. Vasquez, in primam 2æ. quæst. 114. disput. 214. cap. 1.

° Guilielm. Parisiens. tract. de meritis.

d Scotus in 1. sent. dist. 17. quæst. 3. sect. Hic potest dici. Id. in 4. distinct. 49. quæst. 6. Loquendo de stricta justitia, Deus nulli nostrum propter quæcunque merita est debitor perfectionis reddendæ, tam intense ; propter immoderatum excessum illius perfectionis ultra illa merita. e Guilielm. Ockam, in 1. sent. distinct. 17. quæst. 2. sect. Ideo dico aliter.

Gregor. in 1. sent. distinct. 17. quæst. 1. artic. 2. in confirmationibus secundæ conclusionis, et solutione quarti argumenti contra eandem.

& Gabriel. in 1. sent. dist. 17. quæst. 3. artic. 3. dub. 2. et in 2. dist. 27. quæst. 3. artic. 3. dub. 2.

Supplement. Gabriel. in 4. dist. 49. qu. 4. artic. 2. conclus. 3. i Antididagm. Coloniens. cap. 12. de præmio et retribut. bonorum operum.

* Enchirid. addit. concilio Coloniensi, tit. de Justific. sect. Et ut semel hunc articulum.

| Jo. Bunder. compend. concertationis, tit. 6. artic. 5.
m Alphons, contr. hæres. lib. 10. tit. meritum ; et lib. 7. tit. Gratia,

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Vega" who was present at the handling of these matters in the last Tridentine council.

All these and sundry others beside them, hold that the dignity of the good works done by God's children doth not proceed from the value of the works themselves but only from the gracious promise and acceptation of God. Yea Gregorius Ariminensis, thato most able and careful defender of St. Augustine (as Vega stileth him) concludeth perer.ptorily, “that no act of man, though issuing from never so great charity, meriteth of condignity from God, either eternal life, or yet any other reward whether eternal or temporal.” The same conclusion is by Durand the most resolute doctor (as Gerson termeth him) thus confirmed: "That' which is conferred rather out of the liberality of the giver than out of the due of the work, doth not fall within the compass of the merit of condignity, strictly and properly taken. But whatsoever we receive of God, whether it be grace or whether it be glory, whether temporal or spiritual good, whatsoever good work we have before done for it, yet we receive the same rather and more principally out of God's liberality, than out of the due of the work. Therefore nothing at all falleth within the compass of the merit of condignity, so taken.” And “thes

Vega in opusc. de justif. quæst. 5. ad 1. et 3. • Valens ille Gregorius Ariminensis, maximus et studiosissimus Divi Augustini propugnator. Id. ibid. quæst. 6.

p Ex hoc ulterius infero; quod nedum vitæ æternæ sed nec alicujus alterius præmii æterni vel temporalis, aliquis actus hominis ex quacunque charitate

tus, est de condigno meritorius apud Deum. Greg. in 1. sent. dist. 17. quæst. 1. artic. 2.

9 Durandus utique resolutissimus. Jo. Gerson. epist. ad studentes collegis Navarræ.

" Quod redditur potius ex liberalitate dantis quam ex debito operis, non cadit sub merito de condigno stricte et proprie accepto, ut expositum est. Sed quicquid a Deo accipimus, sive sit gratia sive sit gloria, sive bonum temporale vel spirituale, præcedente in nobis propter hoc quocunque bono opere ; potius et principalius accipimus ex liberalitate Dei, quam reddatur ex debito operis. Ergo nihil penitus cadit sub merito de condigno sic accepto. Durand. in 2. sent. dist. 27. quæst. 2. sect. 12.

• Causa autem hujus est, quia et illud quod sumus, et quod habemus, sive

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