peace; but I have never noticed them as am persuaded, at last, come, if the indebeing worthy of great attention; because I pendence of this kingdom is to be preservknow that no real peace can be made unless ed.. There are people weak enough to it be accompanied with reform; because I believe, that, if the Whigs were in power, know, that, until England be made a dif- we might hope for peace. But, did any ferent place to live in froin what it now is, man ever hear the Whigs talk of a reform there can be no real peace with France, pos- in parliament? Yes, formerly they did; sessed of all her present power.


but the moment they were in possession of therefore, who oppose reform, are per- power they ceased to talk upon such sub fectly consistent in being opposed to peace jects. They are now full as much the enewith France at this time; and, as both the mies of reform as are any of their oppogreat political factions are opposed to re- nents; so that their talk about peace is a form, they ought both to be opposed to mere trick practised against the Ministers, peace.

-The Morning Chronicle, which, who are much more consistent in talking in general, speaks the sentiments of the neither about peace nor reform. They Whigs, is often reproving the Ministers for see clearly, that without reform, that is to not entering into negotiations for peace. - say, without a great change in the system of But, will Mr. Perry undertake to shew any ruling this country and managing its reone benefit with which peace, without the sources, including always a reform in the previous reduction of the power of France, Commons' House of Parliament, this counwould be attended ? A peace would, at try cannot exist in peace, if France retains once, open all the ports and harbours of her present power and possessions; and, France; it would bring out the French therefore, as they are bent against reform, ships; it would, in a short time, create a they are also bent ou war, until the poiver French navy. It would give Napoleon the of France be reduced. They, very likely, time and the means to make himself for- have doubts as to the result of the war; midable by sea. We must, therefore, they have their fears, perhaps, that the keep up our navy to nearly its present power of France will finally be increased amount of force. The army we must also by the war, instead of being reduced by it; keep up; for he need not disband a single but, even in that case, they are consistent; battalion What saving, therefore, would for, it is no matter that ruin come in that peace bring us? If it produced no saving way, if they be convinced that ruin would of expense, it would, of course, not reduce also come in the other way. The Ministers, the taxes; and, if it did not reduce the therefore, are consistent; and those only taxes, who, with such a prospect before are inconsistent, who call for peace and are him, would remain in England if he could silent upon the subject of Parliamentary quit it? Who that had ten thousand pounds Reform. -Now is the moment to offer would remain here to pay, in one way or peace. Napoleon is so situated as to make another, one-half of the interest of it to the him lend an ear to such an offer ; but, unGovernment, and that, too, without the less you can prevail upon him to give up most distant prospect of alleviation ? The two-thirds of his power, which is not very nation, under such circumstances, must likely, it is useless to make peace, if you dwindle into a state of feebleness that would be not, at the same time, prepared to make naturally prepare the way for utter subju- a reform at home.--I should be very gation. To reduce the taxes without re- glad, if I could prevail upon the manufacducing the army; indeed without disband- turers, and upon all those who suffer froni ing the army, it is nonsense to talk of; to the war, to see the matter in this light. disband the army without putting arms They feel the evils of war; the masters are into the hands of the people would be to in- ruined and the journeymen are starved by vite invasion; and, to put arms into the the war. That is enough : they look no hands of the people, without giving them a further : they ask for peace. But, they do share in the concern by the means of a Par- not reflect on the causes of peace being reliamentary Reform, would be madness.fused; they do not ask themselves how No: as Major Cartwright has long ago con- peace is to be got; they do not take time tended, and long ago proved, the only sure to inquire into the consequences of peace as defence is in an armed people, represented things now stand with regard to the relain parliament by persons chosen by that po- tive power of the two countries. If they pulation. His scheme is, that the duty of did, they would soon discover, that peace arms-bearing and the right of voting should is not to be had without a parliamentary go hand in hand: and to this we must, I reform, or without a reduction of the power of France by war; and, of course, instead two furious passions of ambition and reof calling out for peace, they would call out venge: and, whatever they are capable of, for the previous measure of Parliamentary may now be expected from them. Reforın. -A peace at this time, or at

In the last Number, p. 562, 1. 6, any time, leaving France in possession of

for take off read talk of.. Holland, the Austrian Netherlands, Italy, and Naples; such a peace, it cannot be too Letters of Lord MOIRA AND MR. Wuitoften repeated, would not enable us to save BREAD, RELATIVE TO THE PRINCESS OF a shilling, while it would reduce our means Wales. of paying taxes, and would enable Napoleon (Continued from page 576.) to inake a marine sorce capable of giving no hesitation in saying, that, to the best of us serious annoyance in case of another war. my recollection, it contains the substance of But, if we, by arming the people of this king what I said in my place. Some verbal indom, could save, at once the expenses of the accuracies are quite immaterial.-I am army and of a large portion of the navy, then, bound to fulfil your Lordship's hope, by indeed, a peace would be worth having; making your Letter to me public. In enwe should then be in safety, and the coun- deavouring to obtain the explanation of try, relieved from a large portion of its passages so generally misunderstood, I knew enormous burdens, would be comparatively not how to proceed ellectually, but by mohappy. This, I repeat it, is to be accom- tion in the House of Commons; and the plished only by making voting and arms- motion having been calculated to obtain bearing go hand in hand; and, therefore, your Lordship's attendance in the House of I say, give us a Parliamentary Reform, as Commons, if successful, your Lordship being the only sure road to a safe and lasting would have had the opportunity of giving peace.

As to the wars of Russia and the explanations, in the very place where Prussia ; as to the proclamations of those they were asked for; and I never had any sovereigns and their generals; as to the doubt of their honourable and satisfactory vows and acclamations of the people whom nature. But the discussions in the House they address; what do all these amount to? of Commons having now been dropped (as They are of very little consequence to us. I sincerely hope never again to be revive Even the complete success of these our new ed), I will send your Letter, and my anfriends would do nothing for the people of swer, directly to the Public Journals. England, whatever it might do for the peo- It will give me pleasure to acknowledge, ple of their own countries. For my part, by the same means, much personal civility I can see nothing that the people of the received at various times from your LordPrussian States are likely to gain by the ship; and particularly in the manner in change. They will change masters. They which I was requested, and the urbanity will fall back into the hands that they were with which I was received, to peruse the formerly in. Their condition will not be docuinents to which your Lordship has remended. The successes of Russia may ferred in the early part of the present year. open a channel for our commerce; but, 1 In the discussions which afterwards arose, take it, that will be all. The power of I did not use the knowledge I had so acFrance wiil continue nearly the same with quired of any one of them, until after it regard to England. At the very best, all had appeared in print.--I regret, that I expect from those successes is a initigation in the course of these discussions I have giof the Continental System. - So far, how - ven momentary pain to their Lordships, ever, am I from believing in the continua- or cause of dissatisfaction to any persons, tion of those successes, that I believe most of whose friendship and esteem I was pleasfirmly they will speedily come to an end. ed in thinking I possessed a share. The The French armies are upon the point of loss, if lost, is entirely my own-it is painonce more moving forward; and it will not ful to me. But justice has been the object be easy to make me doubt of their defeating of my pursuit—that pursuit has been conthose whom they have so often driven be- scientiously conducted by me, and must fore them. I am aware of the effect of the therefore, of necessity, have been free turning of the tide of victory ; but, this is from all selfish considerations. With not the first time that the French armies the addition of these explanations from your have had to stem such a tide. Reverses in Lordship, so honourable to the Princess of war have never yet subdued their spirit : Wales, and so just to yourself, the public the whole nation partakes in the feelings of will be satisfied, that justice has been comits thie? they are now goaded on by the pletely obtained. I have the honour to be,


my dear Lord, your Lordship’s obliged attempting to take her to the United States, and obedient servant,

and not considering it prudent to trust her SAMUEL WHITBREAD. into a port of Brazil, particularly St. SalvaTo the Right Honourable the Earl

dor, as you will perceive by the enclosed of Moira, K. G. &c. bc.

letters 1, 2, and 3, I had no alternative but burning her, which I did on the 31st ult.

after receiving all the prisoners and their AMERICAN STATES.

baggage, which was very tedious work,

only having oue boat left (out of eight), Commodore Bainbridge to the Secrelary of and not one boat left on board the Java. the Navy."

-On blowing up the frigate, I proceed. St. Salvador, Jan. 3. ed to this place, where I have landed all the Sir, I have the honour to inform you, prisoners to return to England, and there that of the 29th ult. at two p.m. in South remain until regularly exchanged, and not lat. 13. 06. and West long. 38. about ten

serve in their professional capacities in any leagues distance from the coast of Brazil, I place or in any manner whatever against the fell in with and captured His Britannic United States of America, until the exMajesty's frigate Java, of 49 guns, and change shall be regularly effected. I upwards of 400 men, commanded by Capt. have the honour to be, &c. Lambert, a very distinguished officer. The

W. BAIN BRIDGE. action lasted one hour and 55 minutes, in which time the enemy was completely dismasted, not having a spar of any kind

House of Representatives, Wednesday,

Feb. 24. standing. The loss on board the Constitution was nine killed and 25 wounded. The following message was received from The enemy had 60 killed and 101 wounded the President of the United States, which, certainly (among the latter Capt. Lambert after being read, was referred to the Commortally); but by the enclosed letter writ- mittee of Foreign Relations : ten on board the ship (by one of the officers To the Senate and House of Representalives of the Java), and accidentally found, it is

of the United States. evident that the enemy's wounded must I lay before Congress copies of a Proclahave been much greater than as above mation of the British Lieutenant Governor stated, and who must have died of their of the island of Bermuda, which has apwounds previously to their being removed. peared under circumstances leaving no The letter states 60 killed and 170 wound doubt of its authenticity. It recites a Bried. For further details of the action, I tish Order in Council of the 26th of Octobeg to refer to the extracts from my journal. ber last, providing for the supply of the The Java had, in addition to her own crew, British West Indies, and other colonial upwards of 100 supernumerary officers and possessions, by a trade under special liseamen, to join the British ships of war in censes, and is accompanied by circular inthe East Indies; also Lieut.-General His- structions to the Colonial Governors, which lop, appointed to the command of Bombay, confines licensed importations from the Major Wilke, and Captain Wood, of his ports of the United States to the ports of Staff, and Captain Marshall, Master and the Eastern States exclusively. The Commander of the British navy, going to Government of Great Britain bad already the East Indies to take the command of a introduced into her commerce during a sloop of war there. Should I attempt war, a system which at once violated the to do justice, by representation, to the brave rights of other nations, and, resting on a and good conduct of all my officers and mass of forgery and perjury unknown to crew during the action, I should fail in the other times, was making an unfortunate attempt; therefore, suffice it to say, that progress in undermining those principles of the whole of their conduct was such as to morality and religion which are the best merit my highest encomiums. I beg leave foundation of national happiness. The to recommend the officers particularly to policy now proclaimed to the world introthe notice of Government, as also the un- duces into her mode of warfare a system fortunate seamen who were wounded, and equally distinguished by the deformity of the families of those brave men who fell in its features and the depravity of its characthe action. The great distance from our ter; having for its object to dissolve the own coast, and the perfect wreck we made ties of allegiance, and the sentiments of loythe enemy's frigate, forbade every idea of alty in the adversary nation, and to seduce

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and separate its component parts the one and thus dispose it to measures of justice from the other.---The general tendency and equity, which he almost always deof these demoralizing and disorganizing manded in vain. When the North of contrivances will be reprobated by the civi- Europe saw itself menaced with a new fatal lized and Christian world; and the insuit- war, the King, after doing every thing that ing attempt on the virtue, the honour, the depended upon him to avert the storm, patriotism, and the fidelity of our brethren took the part which the intermediate posia of the Eastern States, will not fail to call tion of his States that admitted not of lieuforth all their indignation and resentment, trality, and a certain perspective of the deand to attach more and more all the States structive measures that awaited thein on to that happy union and constitution against the part of France, if he refused what was which such insidious and malignant artifices demanded of him, imperiously prescribed. are directed.---The better to guard, ne- He resigned himself to the sovereign envertheless, against she effect of individual gagements, out of all proportion to the cupidity and treachery, and to turn the cor- ability of the country, to which he found rupt projects of the enemy against herself, himself obliged to acquiesce by the treaty I recommend to the consideration of Con- of alliance of the 24th February, and the gress the expediency of an effectual prohi-conventions which accompanied it, in the bition of any trade whatever, by citizens or hope of having obtained for Prussia solid inhabitants of the United States, under support, and in case of necessity; efficaspecial licenses, whether relating to per- cious succour, of which, after so many resons or ports, and, in aid thereof, a prohi- verses, she daily felt the greater necessity; bition of all exportation from the United and that the French Government, answerStates in foreign bottoms, few of which are ing the fidelity with which the King puractually employed, whilst multiplied coun- posed to fulfil his obligations, would, on terfeits of their flags and papers are cover its side, fulfil with the same exactness the ing and encouraging the navigation of the obligation it had contracted with him.enemy.

Unhappy experience proved to him but too
JAMES MADISON. soon, that such were not the intentions of
February 24, 1813.

that Government. Whilst the King fur-
nished the number of troops agreed upon,

to form the stipulated auxiliary corps :

whilst that these troops shed their blood

in the cause of France, with a bravery to Note of the Prussian Government annexed which the Emperor himself has not refused

to the Report of the French Minister for to do justice ; whilst that in the iäterior of Foreign Affairs.

the country they bore up, by, extraordinary The undersigned Chancellor of State has efforts, against furnishing the enormous just received an order from the King to lay supplies, and loans of all kinds, which the before bis Excellency Count de Marsau, wants of the troops, who did not cease to Minister Plenipotentiary from His Majesty inundate it, required. France fulfilled the Emperor of the French, King of Italy, vot, in any manner, the obligations con&c. &c. the following The King, in tracted, the exact accomplishment of which all his political conduct since the peace of could alone prevent the entire ruin of the Tilsit, had principally in view to give and country and its inhabitants. It was sti: ensure to his people a state of tranquillity pulated that the garrison of Glogau should which might gradually enable them to re- be provisioned at the expense of France, cover from the numberless misfortunes and reckoning from the date of the treaty, and losses which they had just suffered, those of Custrin and Stettin, after the enFor this purpose he fulfilled with exactness, tire payment of the contributions; the.latas far as his means permitted him, the en- ter was paid, and even more, in the month gagements which he had been forced to by of May, in: last year, by the deliveries that peace. He has supported, with re- which had been made-nevertheless Prussignation the arbitrary exactions, the spo- sia remained charged with provisioning liation of every description of which the these three garrisons, without any repreprovinces did not cease to be the object ; sentationis being able to effect what justice the enormous charges with which they and the letter of the treaty, demanded. were loaded. He neglected nothing in We had flattered ourselves, at least, acorder to establish between him and the cording to the recent promise of His MaFrench Covernment a sincere confidence, jesty the Emperor, the country round those

places, as the Prussian territory, wouldject. Besides, General de Krusemarck is henceforth have been sheltered from all charged to deliver a note to the Minister, forced requisitions, but at the very mo- which will enlarge more upon so many ob inent when we delivered ourselves up to jects, which clearly proves, that the French this hope, the Commandants received a Government, in holding in no consideration formal order, to take for ten leagues round the principal stipulations of the treaty of the fortresses, every thing of which they alliance in favour of Prussia, which, 'nebelieved they stood in want, which was vertheless, formed so many essential conexecuted with all the violence which was ditions of it, and without which the latter foreseen. It was agreed, that sums ad- would have, whatever might have been the vanced by Prussia for supplies of all kinds, consequence, subscribed to the conditions should be settled every three months, and imposed on her, has itself freed her from the balance paid down at the end of the those reciprocal obligations contained in it. campaign. But she could not obtain that No person is ignorant of the situation in even these accounts should be examined, which Prussia now finds herself, in conand when the balance amounted to very sequence of these circumstances, and genelarge sums, of which she was every mo- rally of the events of the Autumn and Winment to furnish the proofs, when at the end ter, abandoned to herself, without hope of of the year it was 94,000,000 of francs, the efficacious support on the part of a power, most lively representations were not able to whom she was bound, and from whom to procure payment of a single account, al- she did not even obtain the objects of the though the King had, for the moment, con- most striet justice, which she only wished fined his demand to a sum less than half the latter to grant her ; seeing two-thirds the urgent, absolute, and indispensable ne- of her provinces exhausted, and their incessity for which had been demonstrated by habitants reduced to despair, what remains the most powerful evidence. The clause for her, 'except taking council of herself, of the treaty of alliance which ensured the raising and supporting herself? It is in neutrality of a part of Silesia, could not, the love and courage of his people, and in under the circumstances which since oc- the generous interest of a great power, curred, take effect, unless Russia, on her which compassionates his situation, that part, acquiesced in it, and this acqui- the King has determined to seek the means escence, supposed of necessity, that they of getting out of it, and of restoring to his should treat about this object. Neverthe- Monarchy the independence which can less the Emperor caused it to be declared, alone ensure its future prosperity.His that he would not consent that the King Majesty has just taken the measures which should send any one to the Emperor Alex- so grave circumstances exact to join 'himander for this purpose, and in thus ren- self by a strict alliance with His Majesty dering the stipulation entirely illusory, in the Eaperor of all the Russias.

He is point of fact, withdrew from, annulled it. persuaded that France, as well as all EuFresh attempts were made against the rope, will appreciate the powerful motives King's incontestable rights, by the arbitra- which have decided his measures.sy dispositions indulged in, with respect to these measures tend in their final result the corps of Prussian troops in Pomerania, but 10' a peace, founded upon bases equitunder General Balow, by calling it to join able and calculated to augment 'its solidity. the Duke of Belluno's division, and in It has always been, and will constantly replacing it previously to having obtained His main, the most ardent of the King's wishes, Majesty's colisent, under the orders of that and if Providence blesses bis efforts, His Marshal, as well as by the prohibition of Majesty will find himself at the height of all recruiting whatever in the Prussian happiness in being able to contribute in states, occupied by the French troops, rendering benefit to humanity. The un. which was published by order of the Vice- dersigned has the honour to renew to his roy of Italy, without informing His Ma- Excellency Couut de St. Marsau, the asjesty of it. Never, undoubtedly, was the surances of his high consideration. sovereignty of a friendly Prince, attacked

(Signed) "HARDENBURG. in a more terrible mamer.

- It is unne

Breslaw, 16th March. cessary to recapitulate the melancholy details which have lately appeared, they are Copy of a LETTER FROM M. DE KRUSEperfectly known to your Excellency and the Duke of Bassano, by the numerous remon

Paris, March 27, 1813. strarices of which they have been the sub- MONSIEUR LE DUC, I have just receiv


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