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“Tenth. Pauperism and crime are so closely allied that the same individuals belong to both fraternities. Five per cent. of the county paupers acknowledge to have been in jail. The same man is a criminal or pauper, according to circumstances. He steals when he can not beg, and begs when he can not steal.”
Cicero, in his oration for the poet, (Archias,) says that all arts are kindred. We see above that the vices and crimes are kindred also; but whatever they are, society should rather inquire how they came than what they are. Vice, crime, and imbecility, when they have once seized upon a human being, are rarely cured. The preventive is a far more possible process than the curative; hence society is under the greatest obligations, as well as moved by the strongest interests, to take all possible preventive measures. It has two directly within its power. One is positive, by educating the people thoroughly. The other is negative, by withdrawing the open temptations to intemperance. Every Christian and patriotic motive impels us to prevent crime and pauperism by every human means.
The statistics from which we have drawn our conclusions are limited, compared with what they may be made; but while more extensive tables might enlarge the details they would probably in no way change the result. While the great social facts remain, the evil, as well as the good, which attended them, will also remain.
SUGGESTIONS RESPECTING ART-TRAINEING IN AWIEHRHCAN CORLILEGES.
BY M. B. ANDERSON, LL. D., PRESIDENT OF THE ROCHESTER (NEW YORK) UNIVERSITY.
It is the province of an institution for higher education to furnish a course of instruction which shall include the elementary principles of all the great departments of Inuman thought. It should be the aim of such a course to secure the highest culture which the pupil is capable of reseiving, and also to make him in some degree familiar with the mental processes of those men who mark in their epochs the culmination of the world's moral and intellectual life.
Upon the principles here stated all courses of study designed for liberal education have been framed. These courses have varied with the intellectual progress of successive ages. The culture of each generation is represented in its curriculum of educational studies. A nation's ideal is shown in what it attempts to do for the young. The more cultivated the people the greater the anxiety manifested to perpetuate the highest types of the present in the generations to come.
The Athenians thought it a shame that the free citizen should be ignorant of any one of the forms in which the Greek mind had found expression. Consequently, no great genius among them could fail of a fit audience or due appreciation among the
average free-born citizens. All the capacity and achievement of the few were made
available for the cultivation of the many.
Modern education, especially that of our own country, has strangely neglected some of the noblest forms of human thought. Especially is this statement true in respect to the fine arts. With the exception of the study of elegant literature, very little connected with these arts enters into our course of education. It must be conceded that all literature cast into rhythmical forms, or whose aim it is to address and affect primarily the aesthetic capacity, should be put in the same class with the arts of design. The end of the poem, the novel, and a large proportion of essays and occasional addresses, are designed, in the first instance, to give pleasure, however much of moral effect may be indirectly aimed at.
A RNOWLEDGE OF THE GREAT WOIRKS OF LITERATUIRE INDISPENSABLE.
By common consent, the highest forms of aesthetic literature in three or four languages are considered as indispensable elements in every course of education which can, claim to be liberal. The essential principles of literary and art criticism are identical. Homer and Shakespeare are artists by the same title as are the world's painters, sculptors, and architects.
LIBERAL CULTURE DEMANDs SIMILAR KNOWLEDGE OF ART.
The study of literature, having been so universally adopted as a means of culture, is itself a concession of the value, and even the necessity, of art-education within a certain narrow range. The value of art-training being conceded in principle, there can be no good reason given for selecting one branch of artistic creation and the exclusion of others, equally elevated, from our courses of liberal study.
Considered as mere knowledge, or as a means of discipline for the mind and character, some degree of attention to art would seem to be almost indispensable. With the exception of literature, already referred to, and some unsystematic attempts in the direction of music, very little has been done in this direction. The young are left in substantial ignorance of whole branches of art-expression and are expected to acquire a knowledge of them by the accidents of general reading, travel, and intermittent observation. Under such conditions, those only who have the strongest natural drift in the direction of aesthetic pursuits are likely to make any definite and thorough acquisitions. Those in whom the aesthetic sense is least developed and who, consequently, most need the elevating and refining insluence of art-culture, are likely to obtain little or none of it. Persons whose tastes are severe and critical in literature are often utterly ignorant of all that pertains to the plastic arts.
DEFICIENCY OF ART-CULTURE IN AMERICA.
The great majority of educated Americans who travel abroad for improvement are so deficient in elementary art-knowledge that the best opportunities are lost upon them. As they carry no aesthetic conceptions abroad with them, they bring little art-knowl home. The blank and wearied expression on the faces of the crowds who, in obedience to fashion and the guide-books, drag themselves through the European galleries, is a telling index to the average ignorance on art-topics on the part of the traveling public. Not seldom do we see a well-filled library, or an elegantly furnished parlor, whose art-decorations are strangely out of harmony with the surroundings. In furnishin dwellings, we are a people singularly regardless of expense, but we pay little attentio to harmony of color or beauty of form. . In our monuments to the dead, and our public buildings, we spare no expense; but tawdry ornamentation too often takes the place of solidity, proportion, and harmony of parts. In those manufactures which demand beauty in form and color we are as much behind Europeans as we excel them in ingenuity and adaptation of means to ends in mechanical construction. We have a body of able artists in the departments, especially, of painting and sculpture. In landscape, our place is relatively high. But a serious obstacle to the progress of American art is the want of an educated and discriminating body of patrons amon the educated and wealthy. When the hard-working artist sees tons of marble .# acres of canvas, worthless originals and more worthless copies, the work of journeymen painters and stone-cutters, purchased abroad by men of wealth, while honest and real home-production is neglected, he loses faith in his countrymen, and even in art itself. While it may be true that this state of things is passing away, it must be admitted that the great need of American artists is a community of critical and intelligent judges, who will buy with discrimination, expose charlatanry, and patronize real genius and intelligent labor. If we would hold the same high rank among the nations in the elegant arts that we do in practical energy and inventive capacity, we must take measures to meet the deliciency we have alluded to, the reality of which all thoughtful persons must admit. The remedy, we submit, must be sought in art-education for the young. All experience shows that improvements in education must begin in its highest forms. The stream can not rise higher than its fountain. The teachers and leaders of society must be first taught. It is not enough that the elements of drawing are taught in our public schools. This is well, but it will never create a body of connoisseurs to whom the artist can appeal for recognition and appreciation. Nor will schools for the training of artists meet our disliculty. These, also, we need ; but the educating force which these will bring to bear on the community of critics and patrons of art is remote and indirect. We need an art-training for colleges which shall be given as a constituent element of general liberal culture, and not for a merely professional end.
SUGGESTIONS FOR Alt T-CULTURE IN COLLEGES.
I now beg leave to give some hints upon what is possible and practicable in promoting art-study in liberal education. Such a course of instruction must be short, for the curriculum is already crowded, and new sciences and literatures are constantl demanding recognition. It must be accomplished by means of cheap illustrations an appliances. The meager incomes of American colleges in general forbid any large and expensive galleries of art LAWS OF SOUND.
The laws of harmony among sounds are taught in every course of playsics. Some explanation of the acoustic principles which affect the production of musical sounds might naturally and easily be given. Such discussion might be followed by the principal facts in the history of music leading to an account of its marvelous development in modern times, showing it to be the earliest cultivated among the arts, while it has been the latest in reaching maturity. This might be followed by the discussion of the laws which underlie musical criticism and composition, together with some characteristics of the world's great musical composers and performers. It may be said that such instruction must be superficial and worthless. We answer that all elementary instruction must be superficial as compared with the attainments of experts. It is also true that no instruction, however incomplete, can be called superficial which is founded upon universal laws.
LAWS OF COLOR.
Harmony in color depends upon laws similar to those which regulate the relations of sound-waves. The principles of harmony in color are of necessity taught with the elements of optics. The application of these laws to the production of pleasing effects upon the eye is simple and easy. The commonest illustrations of the modes in which contiguous colors heighten or diminish the effect of each other would be sufficient to set the student who was not color-blind upon a course of self-education which, in the end, might make him a critical judge of all the beautiful effects of harmony and contrast in colors. “Chevreul on Color,” a work which grew out of a series of lectures to the decorative artists of Paris, who were engaged in the construction of patterns for various kinds of manufactures, is an example of what may be done in this direction. LAws of PERSPECTIVE AND OF ARCHITECTURE.
Some idea of the laws of perspective and shadow might be given in connection with geometry. In the study of statics, examples may be selected from buildings which would show the relations between the solidity demanded by physical laws and the production of the emotion of the beautiful and sublime in architectural construction. In the study of the different branches of natural history, attention might be drawn to the laws of strength, symmetry, and proportion which are every where united in animals and plants.
BEAUTY AN EVER-PRESENT ATTRIBUTE OF NATURE.
In the Fo analysis of natural objects, a competent teacher will the better secure his end if he directs his pupil to the fact that beauty, as well as adjustment of means to ends, pervades all the kingdoms of nature. Instruction in literature is of course largely aesthetic in its character. This will be much more effective when literature is seen to be but part of a grand system of aesthetic creations. When a student has thus been furnished with elementary critical conceptions, and has been made familiar with those faculties in his own mind which render him capable of enjoying the beautiful and the sublime, he has a ground-work of preparation which enables him readily to profit by whatever of instruction in the departments of plastic art he may be able to obtain.
All instruction upon these subjects should of course be accompanied by illustrations addressed to the eye. As the expense of collecting a complete representation of the progress of art through actual masterpieces is beyond the reach of any treasury but that of a nation, we must set aside all hope of seeing such collection in connection with an institution of learning. Indeed, such immense galleries would be more likely to confuse and burden than to assist a young learner. It is, however, comparatively easy to make a collection of illustrations of art which would answer all the purposes which we have in view.
NECESSARY ART-MODELS, CASTS, AND PLANS.
First.—There should be provided a series of models in plaster of Paris and cork, of celebrated monuments of architecture, which should be so selected as to illustrate the development of orders, types, and styles in themselves and in their relation to nations and periods. To these should be added casts of the details of ornament, such as capitals, moldings, and sculpture, whether serious or grotesque. Stained-glass windows could be represented by chromo-lithographs, as also celebrated interiors, with their general decorations in color. In addition to these, models, photographs, and engravings . of buildings and their ornaments might be made extremely useful. Secondly.—For sculpture, a similar collection of casts in plaster of Paris, zinc, or parian would serve to illustrate the progress of the art and represent the masterpieces of different nations and periods. These casts, as in the case of architecture, might be supplemented largely by pliotographs and engravings. Thirdly.—To illustrate ceramic art, reproductions of ancient vases of Greek, Etruscan, and oriental origin could be procured at a slight expense. To these might be added photographs and engravings which would give the student a tolerably clear idea of the gradual development of this branch of art, in which the useful and ornamental are brought in so close a connection. Fourthly.—To represent ancient pictorial art, a collection of engravings and chromolithographs of the extant fragments of Greek, Etruscan, and Roman paintings—such, for example, as have been found in Etruscan and Roman tombs, in the baths of Titus, and at Pompeii—might be made available. To these might be added copies of early church mosaics and frescoes, which would illustrate the transition from heathen to Christian art. For this purpose the publications of the Arundel Society would be found trustworthy and valuable. Fifthly.—For an illustrative art collection, nothing is more valuable than well-selected engravings. Engraving is itself a branch of art, while at the same time it represents the sister arts. The composition, outline, and distribution of light and shade, the general expression of a picture, indeed every thing except color, can be set forth by a skillful engraver. Etchings, of which the early painters were so fond, will give us the autograph expression of an artist's thought. Where the etcher is also the designer, and an artist of reputation, his work will give us a real and trustworthy idea of his enius, and will approach a painting in its value for art-instruction. An etching by embrandt, Salvator Rosa, or Waterloo, brings us face to face with the artist's thought
set forth in his own language. An engraver of real power, like Marc Antonio, Raphael Morghen, or Frederick Müller, can interpret the spirit of his original with greater success than the most skillful translator in literature. Without attempting to obtain etchings or engravings which are costly by mere rarity, or indulging in the luxury of proof impressions, a collection can be made, at a moderate outlay, which will serve a
stwofold purpose. They enable us to study the art of engraving in its completeness
and the most significant elements of the art of painting. Under the skillful manipulation of artists like Kellerhoven we are, in addition, given admirable representations of color. When a collection of engravings is arranged by schools, and in a historical order, it can be made to illustrate successfully the growth of culture and the progress of art. Such a collection would naturally be supplemented, in time, by copies in oil and original paintings. Every good collection of engravings would furnish by its presence a strong argument for its enlargement by original paintings. Sixthly.—A collection of wooden models and drawings representing the progress of naval architecture, and its present condition, though not so immediately and exclusively bearing on art-culture, would be an appropriate pendant to the illustrations of architecture, properly so called. The graceful curves and free, bold outlines necessary to naval construction give scope for aesthetic effects which are worthy to be compared with the highest results of the sister art. The value of such models for the illustration of the laws of hydrostatics and hydrodynamics is obvious. Seventhly.—These illustrations might be extended so far as to include the weapons, utensils, and ornaments of savage races and prehistoric times, inasmuch as they show tendencies to regard beauty of form and finish in construction. In like manner, whatever specimens of handicraft combine the elegant with the useful in any remarkable degree would be serviceable for the general purpose we have in view. One of the surest marks of advancing civilization is the tendency to mold articles, designed for purely practical ends, into forms of beauty.
AIRRANGEMENT OF ART-COLLECTIONS.
A collection of art-illustrations should be displayed in an appropriate room and classified into departments formed on scientific principles. So far as possible, they should be so arranged as to show by their relation to each other the progress of artistic development, and set forth the leading facts in the history of art. They should be as carefully arranged as a cabinet of natural history. A well-selected library of books Gn the theory, practice, and history of art should be readily accessible to the pupil. They will sustain the same relation to the illustrations that scientific treatises do to cabinets of minerals and fossils. - ART-LECTURES.
In connection with these illustrations a course of lectures should be given founded upon the actual presentation to the eye of the object to be explained. Opportunity should be given for repeated examination of the illustrations in the teacher's presence, and for the free interchange of questions and answers. A short time thus devoted to art-study under an intelligent instructor would give a class the initial conceptions which reading, travel, and observation will mature into capacity for intelligent enjoyment and enlightened criticism of art.
ADVANTAGE TO THE GENERAL PUBLIC OF ELEMENTARY ART-CULTURE,
It would aid in the elevation of the public taste by gradually educating a body of connoisseurs capable of purchasing art-objects wisely, and by giving tone and character to the judgments of the periodical press. Adequate preparation, so far as art is concerned, would be secured for profitable foreign travel, and the moral advantage would be obtained which always arises from increasing the public capacity for distinguishing the false from the true. Domestic life would be made more attractive and, at the same time, less costly. The tone of dress and furniture would be less under the control of vulgar wealth, and the tact and skill which produce beautiful effects from a slight outlay would come to be properly appreciated. The pleasures arising from cultivated taste would tend to take the precedence of those vulgar amusements which degrade alike the mind and morals of society.
The strongest argument for art-culture is, however, found in the fact that it is the natural complement to the study of science and literature, and is indispensable to the completion of a broad, liberal, and justly proportioned education.
KNOWLEDGE OF ART ESSENTIAL TO A JUST KNOWLEDGE OF HISTORY.
The growth of art is so closely interwoven with all civilization and intellectual ress that it is impossible to separate them from each other without making all our ideas of human history disproportioned, vague, and inadequate. The titanic civilizations of Egypt and Assyria are revealed most distinctly and emphatically in their art.