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his willingness to combat them and their allies, if they would fix on the time and place. To this they returned no other answer than that, under the pleasure of God and of our blessed Saviour, they would not engage in battle but when it should be agreeable to themselves, and that they would bring their present enterprise to a happy conclusion. The French advanced in handsome array, in three divisions, to a small river within a quarter of a league of the town; and the duke of Bedford, having drawn up his army in three divisions also, marched thither to defend the passage. When the two armies were near, several severe skirmishes took place at different parts: especially on the quarter where the heir of Warwick and the lord de l'Isle-Adam were posted, a sharp attack was made by Rodrique de Villandras, the lord de Saintrailles, and other captains, who were escorting a convoy of provision for the town. In spite of their adversaries, they forced a passage for part of their convoy to the very gates, and drove in from twenty to thirty bullocks, a number of sacks of flour, and a reinforcement to the garrison of about four score men-at-arms; but this was not effected without great effusion of blood, for very many were killed and wounded on both sides. On the part of the French was killed the lord de Saintrailles, eldest brother to Poton de Saintrailles. In another quarter, where sir Thomas Kiriel, sir John bastard of St. Pol, the lord d'Amont, and Philibert de Vaudray were posted, many gallant deeds were done, and several killed and wounded on both sides. The English lost there a gentleman called Odart de Remy. formine lasted nearly till vespers, and as it was St. Laurence's day in August, and very hot, the two armies suffered greatly from it. The French captains, perceiving that they could not gain any advantage, for the English and Burgundians were strongly posted, retreated with their army to Cressy in Brie, where they halted for the night, and thence marched to Chateau-Thierry and to Vitray-le-François, where they stayed four days. The duke of Bedford, knowing that the French intended entering the Isle of France, and fearing they might conquer some of his towns, decamped in no very orderly manner from before Lagny, for many things were left behind by him, and advanced towards Paris. Having collected his men, he followed the French to offer them battle again; but they sent for answer, that they had gained what they had come for. The lord de Gaucourt was of infinite service to the French by his wisdom and prudence. The French now left Vitry and returned toward Lagny, where the lord de Gaucourt remained : the other captains led their men to the garrisons whence they had come. The besieged were much rejoiced, and not without cause, at the departure of their enemies, for the siege had lasted upwards of four months, in which time they had suffered very great hardships from want of provision and other distresses. At this period, the English lost the castle of Monchas in Normandy, belonging to the count d'Eu, prisoner in England, and which they had held for a long time. The captain of it was called Brunclay", but he was at the time with the duke of Bedford at the siege of Lagny. The French delivered all of their party confined in the prisons, and sent in haste to offer its government to sir Regnault de Fontaines, then at Beauvais, who immediately accepted of it, and marched thither with about eighty combatants. By means of this castle, a sharp warfare was carried on in Vimeu, and the adjacent parts, against all who supported the party of king Henry and of the duke of Burgundy.
CHAPTER CXXII.--THE COMMONALTY OF GHENT RISE AGAINST THEIR MAGISTRATES.
At this season, the commonalty of Ghent rose in arms, to the amount of fifty thousand, against their magistratest. Having assembled about ten o'clock in the morning, they went to the square of the market-place, and drew up in front of the hall where the magistrates * “Brunclay.” Q. Brownlow. sedition lasted twelve, not two days only, and was appeased
+ The cause of this commotion was the baseness of the by the promise of a new coinage.—Pontus Heuterus, in gold and silver coin struck in the duke's name. The vit. Philippi Boni.
were. They were obliged instantly to speak with them, or they would have forced an
entrance through the doors and windows. When the magistrates appeared, they immediately put to death the deacon of small
trades, called John Boëlle, one of the sheriffs, named Jean Danielvan Zenere, with one of
the counsellors called Jason Habit. The other magistrates were in fear of their lives from the cruelties they saw committed before their eyes; the mob, however, were contented with what they had done. The commonalty then marched away in a body for the abbey of Saint Pierre, to destroy a wood that was hard by ; from thence they went to St. Barron, to recover some hereditary rents they had paid the church; but the abbot, by his prudent conduct and kind words, pacified them, and prevented further mischief. He complied with all their requests, and gave them abundantly to eat from the provisions of the monastery. They went away well pleased with the abbot, and then broke into three or four houses of the principal burghers, carrying away all they thought proper, and destroying the rest of the furniture. They threw open the gates of all the prisons of the duke, setting those confined at liberty,+more especially one called George Goscath, who was a strong partisan of theirs against the magistrates. After they had thus acted for two days, by the interference of several of the chief men of Ghent they were appeased, and returned quietly to their former occupations. During these riots, the duke's officers left the town, fearful that the mob would put them to death, as they had done others; and the duke of Burgundy, by reason of the many weighty affairs he had on his hands, was advised to act mercifully toward them. They entreated forgiveness of the duke's council, who, on their paying a fine, pardoned them, and they afterward remained peaceable.
CHAPTER CXXIII.-SIR JOHN BASTARD OF ST. POL AND THE LORD DE HUMIERES ARE TAKEN PRISONERS BY The FRENCh.
WHILE these things were passing at Ghent, sir John bastard de St. Pol and the lord de Humieres marched from Artois, with about sixty combatants, to join the duke of Bedford in Paris. They went to Mondidier and to l'Isle-Adam, thinking to proceed thence in safety to Paris; but they were met by a detachment from the garrison of Creil, who had received notice of their intended march, and were instantly attacked with such vigour that, in spite of their resistance, they were both made prisoners, with the greater part of their men, and carried to Creil.
A few saved themselves by flight; and the two knights, after some little time, ransomed themselves by paying a large sum of money to those who had taken them.
CHAPTER cxxiv.–GREAT DIsordERS ARE cox MITTED BY THE FRENCH IN THE AMIENNois sANTERRE, AND visieu.
At this time, Blanchefort*, who held the castle of Breteuil for king Charles of France, did infinite mischief to the countries of Amiens, Santerre, and Vimeu, by fire, sword, and pillaging, insomuch that most of the inhabitants had deserted the country, and retired within the fortified towns; for they were by these means deprived of the power of paying the tributes levied on them for forbearance. This party had also repaired some of the castles in Vimeu, such as Araines, Hornoy, and others, in which they posted garrisons, who much annoyed the adjacent parts. They were likewise harassed by those of the Burgundy faction. The poor labourers knew not whither to fly, for they were not defended by the lords of either party; and what added to their distress, sir Philibert de Vaudray and the lord d'Amonth, on their return from serving the duke of Bedford, took possession of Pont de Remy, by driving away the lord de Saveuses' men, who had the guard of it.
The lord de Saveuses was very indignant at this conduct, and assembled his friends and dependants to expel them thence; but as he found they were superior to him in numbers, he gave up the attempt, and they remained in the quiet possession of the post, to the great annoyance of the country round.
CHAPTER cxxv.–The HEIR of CoMMERCY TAKES THE Town of LIGNY IN THE BARRois, BELONGING TO SIR JOHN DE LUXEMBOURG.
IN the month of September of this year, the heir of Commercy, who had a long standing enmity against sir John de Luxembourg, as well for his detaining from him the castle of Montague as for other matters of quarrel between them, assembled from divers parts four or five hundred combatants, whom he led secretly to Ligny in the Barrois, and, through neglect of the guard, took it by scalado. The town was instantly alarmed, and the majority of the inhabitants precipitately withdrew into the castle, which had not been conquered,— whence they defended themselves gallantly against the enemy, who summoned them repeatedly to surrender. They would never listen to the summons, but despatched messengers in all speed to inform sir John de Luxembourg of their distress, and to require his aid.
* Perhaps, Guy III. de Blanchefort, lord of St. Clement, + This must be James lord of Aumont, counsellor and &c., a chamberlain of the king, and seneschal of Lyons, chamberlain to the duke of Burgundy, son of John, lord who died in 1460. of Aumont, grand-echanson, who was slain at Azincourt. * Monstrelet appears to have been informed but imperfectly of these transactions. In the year 1428, the countess being besieged in Gouda by the Burgundian forces, submitted to a peace, by which she acknowledged Philip as heir to Hainault, Holland, Zealand, and Friezland, appointing him protector of the said states during her lifetime. It was also stipulated that she should not marry without the consent of Philip and her states. Upon the conclusion of this treaty the duke departed, leaving Francis de Borselle, a nobleman of high rank attached to the Burgundian party, lieutenant of the provinces. In July 1433, says the historian of Holland, the countess married this gentleman in violation of her engagement, upon which the duke
Sir John, on hearing this, immediately set clerks to write letters to all his friends and relations, to press them most earnestly, from the affection they bore him, now to hasten to the succour of his town of Ligny. Many of the nobles and gentlemen to whom he had applied, made instant preparations to attend him, and would have joined him in great numbers, but, in the mean time, the young lord of Commercy perceiving he could not win the castle, and fearing the great force sir John de Luxembourg would march against him, whose power and inclinations he well knew, concluded with those in whom he had the greatest confidence to return whence they had come. Having thus determined, they packed up all the moveables they found in the town that were portable: they set the houses on fire, to the grief and dismay of the inhabitants, and then marched away with their prisoners to Commercy. Intelligence of this was instantly sent to sir John de Luxembourg, who was grieved at heart on hearing it; and as his plans were now at an end, he sent letters to countermand the coming of his friends, and gave up his intended expedition.
CHAPTER cxxvi.--THE BURGUNDIANs, UNDER PRETENCE of BEING ENGLISH, GAIN THE CASTLE OF LA Boue, NEAR To LAON,+OTHER MATTERs.
At this same period, the men of the lord de Ternant, who resided in Rethel, dressed themselves with the red cross to counterfeit being English, and on a certain day won by stratagem the castle of la Boue, within two leagues of Laon. They were under the command of a man-at-arms called Nicholas Chevalier; and, by means of this capture, those of Laon, and other places under the obedience of king Charles, suffered much. The reason why they put on the red cross was on account of the truce between king Charles and the duke of Burgundy, which was not then expired. They had always been of the duke's party; and very many mischiefs were done to the poor countrymen by English, French, and Burgundians.
The count de Vaudemont, at this time also, assembled three or four hundred combatants in Picardy, whom he conducted to his town of Wezelize : one of his captains was the bastard de Humieres: and on their arrival, they commenced a severe warfare on the Barrois and Lorrainers, to whom they did much mischief by fire, sword, and plunder.
In the month of October, the duke and duchess of Burgundy went to Holland, escorted by about six hundred combatants from Picardy. The duke staid there about a month, to examine the country; and during that time, a treaty was concluded between his counsellors and those of the duchess of Bavaria, by which it was settled that the duke of Burgundy should, from the present, enjoy all the honours, profits, and emoluments of the countries of Hainault, Holland, Zealand, and Frizeland, with their dependencies, as his own hereditary right; but that, should the duke die before the said duchess, all these territories were to return to her as the legal heiress of them. Many noble lordships and rich estates were at the same time allotted her, together with the county of Ostrevant, of which county alone she was now to style herself countess, laying aside all the titles of the above-named places. When these matters had been finally concluded, the duke consented that his cousin, the duchess, should marry sir François de Borselle, which had been secretly treated of between the parties. The duke of Burgundy henceforward styled himself, in addition to his former titles, count of Hainault, Holland and Zealand, and lord of Frizeland. On the conclusion of this treaty, he returned to Flanders”.
entered the country, caused him to be apprehended and confined him in the tower of Rupelmonde. It was rumoured that he would be beheaded, and Jacqueline, alarmed for his safety, conveyed absolutely the whole of her estates to Philip for his liberation, in consideration of which the generous robber assigned to his late prisoner, the county of Ostrevant, the lordships of Brill and South Beveland, with the collection of certain tolls and imposts, on which they lived together but a short time before death put a period to her eventful history, in the month of October, 1436. —Barlandi Hollandia comitum Historia et Icones.
CHAPTER CXXVII.-FRIAR THOMAS GOES TO ROME.-HE IS BURNT THERE.
IN this year, friar Thomas Conette *, of the order of Carmelites, whom we have before noticed in this history, made many preachings in divers parts of Champagne, the which had induced numbers of ladies of high rank to lay aside their ridiculous dresses. He thence journeyed to Rome, during the popedom of Eugenius IV., and arrived there with the Venetian ambassadors. He was lodged at Saint Paul's, whence the pope ordered him to come before him, not with any evil intentions toward him, but for him to preach ; for he had heard much of his renown. He refused twice to attend the holy father, under pretence of being ill; and the third time, the pope sent his treasurer to bring him.
Friar Thomas, seeing the treasurer enter the house, leaped out of the window to escape; but, being directly pursued, was taken and carried before the pope in his palace. The cardinals of Rouen and of Navarre were charged to examine him and his doctrines, who, finding him guilty of heresy, and worthy of death, he was in consequence sentenced to be publicly burnt in the city of Rome.
CHAPTER CXXVIII.--THE DEATH OF THE DUCHESS OF BED FORD.
IN these days, Anne, duchess of Bedford, and sister to the duke of Burgundy, lay ill, at the hôtel of the Tournelles in Paris, of a lingering disorder, which, in spite of all the care of her physicians, of whom she had many, carried her off from this life. She was buried in the same chapel of the Celestins where Louis, late duke of Orleans, had been interred. The duke of Bedford was sorely afflicted at her death, as were many of his party; for they feared that the connexion, which had been continued by her means with her brother, the duke of Burgundy, would thereby be weakened.
When she died, ambassadors from the three parties, namely, king Charles, king Henry, and the duke of Burgundy, were assembled at Auxerre, and at Melun, to treat of a peace; but as they could not agree upon terms, they separated and returned to their lords.
CII APTER cxxix.-soME OF THE FRENCH CAPTAINs CRoss THE RIvER soMME, AND OVERRUN ARTOIS.
In the beginning of December, captain Blanchefort, sir Anthony de Chabannes, the lord de Longueval, sir Carados Desquesnes, and others of king Charles's party, assembled about eight hundred or a thousand combatants near Breteuil, and thence marched to cross the river Somme at Capy. They advanced during the night for Dourlens, whither they had sent spies to learn if they could not win it by scalado : but the lord de Humieres, having had notice of their intentions, sent in all haste to inform the mayor and magistrates that the French were marching to attack their town.
Upon this, they made every preparation for a good defence; and sent a messenger to the castle of Beauval to make the garrison acquainted with the above intelligence. The messenger was met, just before day-break, a quarter of a league from the town, by the French scouts,
* This unfortunate heretic was a Breton by birth. Being seized with an inordinate desire of reforming the dress of the ladies, and the manners of the clergy, he left Rennes and travelled into the Low Countries, where he preached with so much success that the towers of gauze and ribbons called hennins, which were then the rage, disappeared wherever he went. Perhaps he was spared the mortification of hearing that they were resumed, several stages higher, immediately after his departure. From Flanders he travelled into Italy, reformed the order of Carmelites at Mantua, and made himself famous for his zeal and eloquence at Venice. The papal ambassadors reported his praises at Rome; but his ardour for reform, which had cap
tivated many others, alarmed pope Eugenius, who justly dreaded the consequences of his strenuous assertions that marriages ought to be allowed to the clergy, and that flesh might be eaten by them without risk of damnation. It was not long after his arrival at the pontifical city, that a process was instituted against him for these and other heretical doctrines, and father Thomas was at last burnt for not knowing how to confine his eloquence to the harmless subject which first called it forth. He suffered with great constancy, and was by some, even among the catholics, reputed a martyr. For further particulars, consult Bayle, art. “Conecte.”