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as history emerges into broad daylight, the tide of Celtic migration is seen rolling ever eastward. In the beginning of Sacking of the fourth century before Christ a lateral wave sweeps over the i.e. Italian peninsula, deluging Rome herself and obliterating the landmarks of her earlier history. Three or four generations later another wave of the advancing tide, again diverted southward, pours into Macedonia and Thessaly, for a time carrying everything before it. The fatal repulse from Delphi, invested Attack on by Greek patriotism with a halo of legendary glory, terminated o, the Celtic invasion of Greece. The Gaulish settlement in Asia Minor is directly connected with this invasion'. A considerable force had detached The Gauls themselves from the main body, refusing to take part in #. the expedition. Afterwards reinforced by a remnant of the repulsed army they advanced under the command of the chiefs Leonnorius and Lutarius, and forcing their way through Thrace arrived at the coast of the Hellespont. They did not long remain here, but gladly availing themselves of the first means of transport that came to hand, crossed over to the opposite shores, whose fertility held out a rich promise of booty. Thence they overran the greater part of Asia Minor. They laid the

whole continent west of Taurus under tribute, and even the

relates to the subject. See also Le Bas
Asie Mineure (Paris, 1863).
1 Thechief authorities for the history
of the Asiatic Gauls are Polybius v. 77,
78, 111,xxii. 16—24, Livyxxxviii. 12 sq.,
Strabo xii. p. 566 sq., Memnon (Geogr.
Min. ed. Müller, III. p. 535 sq.), Justin
xxv.2 sq., Arrian Syr. 42, Pausanias i.
4.5. See other references in Diefenbach
Celt. II. p. 250. It formed the main sub-
ject of several works no longer extant,
the most important of which was the
Taxarixà of Eratosthenes inforty books.
The monograph of Wernsdorff, De Re-
publica Galatarum (Nuremb. 1743), to
which all later writers are largely in-
debted, is a storehouse of facts relating
to early Galatian history. See also

Robiou Histoire des Gaulois d'Orient
(1866). The existing monuments of
Galatia are described by Texier, Asie
Mineure (1839–1849), I. p. 163 sq. An
article in the Revue des Deuz Mondes
(1841), Iv.p. 574, by the samewriter, con-
tains an account of the actual condition
of this country with a summary of its
history ancient and modern. See also
his smaller book, Asie Mineure (1862),
p. 453 sq. More recent is the impor-
tant work Exploration Archéologique
de la Galatie et de la Bithynie etc. by
Perrot and Guillaume. The account
of the Monumentum Ancyramum in this
work is very complete and illustrated
by numerous plates. The ancient his-
tory of Galatia is also given at length.

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Syrian kings, it is said, were forced to submit to these humi-
liating terms'. Alternately, the scourge and the allies of
each Asiatic prince in succession, as passion or interest dictated,
they for a time indulged their predatory instincts unchecked.
At length vengeance overtook them. A series of disasters,
culminating in a total defeat inflicted by the Pergamene prince
Attalus the First, effectually curbed their power and insolence".
By these successive checks they were compressed within
comparatively narrow limits in the interior of Asia Minor.
The country to which they were thus confined, the Galatia of
history, is a broad strip of land over two hundred miles in
length, stretching from north-east to south-west. It was
parcelled out among the three tribes, of which the invading
Gauls were composed, in the following way. The Trocmi
occupied the easternmost portion, bordering on Cappadocia and
Pontus, with Tavium or Tavia as their chief town. The Tolis-
tobogii, who were situated to the west on the frontier of
Bithynia and Phrygia Epictetus, fixed upon the ancient Pessinus
for their capital. The Tectosages settled in the centre between
the other two tribes, adopting Ancyra as their seat of government,
regarded also as the metropolis of the whole of Galatia”.
But though their power was greatly crippled by these
disasters, the Gauls still continued to play an important part
in the feuds of the Asiatic princes. It was while engaged in
these mercenary services that they first came into collision
with the terrible might of Rome. A body of Galatian troops
fighting on the side of Antiochus at the battle of Magnesia
attracted the notice of the Romans, and from that moment
their doom was sealed. A single campaign of the Consul
Manlius sufficed for the entire subjugation of Galatia.

* Livy xxxviii. 16.

* The chronology is somewhat uncertain. See Niebuhr Kl. Schrift. p. 286. The date given is an approximation.

* So Strabo xii. p. 567, Pliny H. N. v. 42, in accordance with ancient authorities generally and confirmed by the

inscriptions, Boeckh III.nos. 4oio, 4or 1, 4085. Memnon is therefore in error (c. 19), when he assigns the chief towns differently. The names of the three tribesarevariously written(see Contzen, p. 221), but the orthography adopted in the text is the best supported.

From that time forward they lived as peaceably as their restless spirit allowed them under Roman patronage. No humiliating conditions however were imposed upon them. They were permitted to retain their independence, and continued to be governed by their own princes. The conquerors even granted accessions of territory from time to time to those Galatian sovereigns who had been faithful to their allegiance. It was not the policy of the Romans to crush a race which had acted and might still act as a powerful check on its neighbours, thus preserving the balance of power or rather of weakness among the peoples of Asia Minor. At length, after becomes a more than a century and a half of native rule, on the death of so Amyntas one of their princes, Galatia was formed by Augustus into a Roman province.

The limits of the province are not unimportant in their bearing on some questions relating to the early history of the Gospel. It corresponded roughly to the kingdom of Amyntas, .* though some districts of the latter were assigned to a different province. government. Thus Galatia, as a Roman province, would include, besides the country properly so called, Lycaonia, Isauria, the south-eastern district of Phrygia, and a portion of Pisidia". Lycaonia is especially mentioned as belonging to it, and there is evidence that the cities of Derbe and Lystra in particular” were included within its boundaries. When the province was

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formed, the three chief towns of Galatia proper, Ancyra,
Pessinus, and Tavium, took the name of Sebaste or Augusta,
being distinguished from each other by the surnames of the
respective tribes to which they belonged".
Thus when the writers of the Roman period, St Paul and
St Luke for instance, speak of Galatia, the question arises
whether they refer to the comparatively limited area of
Galatia proper, or to the more extensive Roman province.
The former is the popular usage of the term, while the latter
has a more formal and official character.
Attention has hitherto been directed solely to the barbarian
settlers in this region. These however did not form by any
means the whole population of the district. The Galatians,
whom Manlius subdued by the arms of Rome, and St Paul by
the sword of the Spirit, were a very mixed race. The substra-
tum of society consisted of the original inhabitants of the
invaded country, chiefly Phrygians, of whose language not much
is known, but whose strongly marked religious system has a
prominent place in ancient history. The upper layer was
composed of the Gaulish conquerors: while scattered irregularly
through the social mass were Greek settlers, many of whom
doubtless had followed the successors of Alexander thither and
were already in the country when the Gauls took possession of
it". To the country thus peopled the Romans, ignoring the old
Phrygian population, gave the name of Gallogracia. At the
time when Manlius invaded it, the victorious Gauls had not
amalgamated with their Phrygian subjects; and the Roman
consul on opening his campaign was met by a troop of the
Phrygian priests of Cybele, who clad in the robes of their
order and chanting a wild strain of prophecy declared to him
that the goddess approved of the war, and would make him

42. That Derbe also belonged to Ga- Alterth. III. I. p. 156.

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master of the country’. The great work of the Roman conquest was the fusion of the dominant with the conquered race—the Fusion of - - - Gauls and result chiefly, it would appear, of that natural process by which Phry. all minor distinctions are levelled in the presence of a superior * power. From this time forward the amalgamation began, and it was not long before the Gauls adopted even the religion of their Phrygian subjects”. The Galatia of Manlius then was peopled by a mixed race of Phrygians, Gauls, and Greeks. But before St Paul visited the Romans. country two new elements had been added to this already heterogeneous population. The establishment of the province must have drawn thither a considerable number of Romans, not very widely spread in all probability, but gathered about the centres of government, either holding official positions themselves, or connected more or less directly with those who did. From the prominence of the ruling race in the Galatian monuments" we might even infer that the whole nation had been romanized. Such an impression however would certainly be incorrect. I cannot find in St Paul's epistle any distinct trace of the influence, or even of the presence, of the masters of the world, though the flaunting inscriptions of the Sebasteum still proclaim the devotion of the Galatian people to the worship of Augustus and Rome. More important is it to remark on the large influx of Jews Jews. which must have invaded Galatia in the interval". Antiochus

* Polyb. xxii. 20, Livy xxxviii. 18. * A Brogitarus is mentioned as priest of the mother of the gods at Pessinus; Cicero de Arusp. Resp. 28, pro Sert. 26. A Dyteutus son of Adiatorix held the same office in the temple of the goddess worshipped at Comana, Strabo xii. p. 558. Other instances are given in Thierry 1. p. 411, Perrot Erpl. Arch. p. 185. * Boeckh Corp. Inscr. III. pp. 73– 115. * The direct connexion of the Galatians with Jewish history is very slight.

In 2 Macc. viii. 20 there is an obscure
allusion to an engagement with them in
Babylonia. In 1 Macc. viii. 2 it is said
that Judas Maccabaeus “heard of the
wars of the Romans and the brave deeds
which they did among the Galatians (or
Gauls) and how they subdued them and
laid them under tribute’: but whether
we suppose the enumeration of the
Roman triumphs to proceed in geo-
graphical or chronological order, the
reference is probably to the Western
Gauls, either chiefly or solely, since the
successes of the Romans in Spain are

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