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same pistol-shots going off, what has been wanting in his duty. It would the puppies do then? cock is a dispensation of Providencetheir ears all of them and trot a the puppy has “turned out” gunlittle nearer, led by the most shy, and the beautiful young dog's courageous, to hear what the com- first day is also his last. motion was.
Dogs and human Let us look now at the method beings are in nowise different from adopted by those conversant with one another in some important the " disease," to secure immunity particulars. Some are constitu- from it. A writer in the · Field tionally bold, others timid, and who signs his name, and is evithe more timid a dog is, the greater dently a sportsman, gravely advothe distance should be between him cates the following course of inand the gun when he hears it for struction : the first time, and when you propose to accustom him to the sound
"Having taught him this lesson
to answer to whistle-take him one of it. If keepers appreciated this day on to the lawn, and crack off a axiom, and would take a little half-charged cartridge. If he bolts trouble, a gun-shy dog would be off to his kennel, try the whistle. à rara avis indeed ; and I am Probably no effect : then simply bold enough to say that any dog follow him and chain him up whilst can be put beyond the possibility comforting his shattered nerves. If of becoming gun-shy in half-a-dozen your pup is shy the first shot, try him lessons of ten minutes each. Some he will soon come to.
again shortly, making much of him : keepers take a considerable amount of trouble in teaching their dogs I have read many recipes, but to fetch and carry; but it never this fairly beats all. A surer way enters into their calculations that of ruining your dog could not be a puppy may fail in the most devised. You are simply recomimportant particular, or that it mended in cold blood to create is in their power to avert what the disease and then give yourself possibly may happen on the the task of curing it. If the twelfth of August, or the first puppy's nerves are “shattered,” of September. A young and the harm is done, and he will fear rather timid dog is taken out the second discharge more than generally on a cord; a right and the first. You have now got a left, perhaps from more than one gun-shy dog, and though you may gun, is suddenly fired nearly over cure him, it will only be by the exhis back. The noise frightens penditure of an enormous amount him, the restraint of the cord of patience and perseverance. makes matters worse, and he is Some keepers are in the habit thoroughly cowed. "Damn the of firing a pistol before feedingbrute, he's gun-shy,” says some time, the meaning of this maneuvre intelligent sportsman; "shoot being that the dogs may associate him." "So he is," says Donald. the sound with something pleas“That is a peety; the very puppy ant, and in longing for their food, the maister picket oot for hissel' long for the noise that invariably - the best-looking o' the lot.” announces it. The idea is not a
Neither he nor his master, when particularly original one, and the he draws him aside that evening success or otherwise of the system and tells him with bated breath depends on the size of the pistol the result of the puppy's first day, and the disposition of the dog. A has the slightest idea that any one large pistol would undoubtedly frighten s tímid deg: a pistol toy the zoo zesz skorte day by day, might not Perhape keepers with and before very cong shey take many doga under their shazze lay Stie ce no notice ci approach in á stock of the weapons in Pursue the same actics with your question, from the oid-fashioned dog when secustoming him to the á horse to the modern “ Derin- 2. The maius aperiti-simple ger," to suit their patients. Bat enough in a conscienes should why, I would ask, run the risk at be az tezovs. Taze him into : il Why Are a pistol, large or coursyari with a rate to it, or into smas, neat a young dog to you a feit becand a vire fence, or into kror he ! not be afraid of it! any enciosed space where he can I have said, and I repeat that any see what is going on outside. Do Porcy can be as beyond the not restrain bin oy a cord e possibility of being zus-sky is chait. Leave bin free to run haitadozen short lessons. Gan about or retreat should be tzel 0 akyness in a dog is no more heredi- incised. Send your teeper a long tary than train-shyness in a horse way cz—say 15 yards she more The insby dog and the train-shy timid the dog, remember the hore have been made so by mis greater scad be the stance management. Both can be cured, nake his fire a shot. Watch the and can be made in time to look dog, and you wat once see box on their pet aversions, the gun nach nearer-it at 3–she shot and the train, with equanimity, shoald be ired next time. After nay, more, in the case of the dog a few shoes he probabiy be with affection; bat, take my advice, eager to get up to the gen, more educate the animals in question especially if you take the day a properly. you wiil End it very mseh pleasan: one and give him some Easier thancuring them when spot thing to look for. At this seems If you have a pair of young horses much ado about nothing and that have never seen a train, to keepers are above taking trouble of pat them in the family baroache, this sort, tat if you have a ralacontaining the wife of your bosom, able dog he is worth making sure drive them to a level
crossing, and of. I have two citebes jest now, after fastening them to the gates, beautiful workers, very keen, and wait contentediy for the approach very fond of the gen. Bosb, I am of the “ Flying Sooteman," would confident, would have been made be - patting it mildly — injudi- gun-shy had I not been careful cious. Instead of adoçting this with them. You must judge by plan, you halt your horses on the the disposition of the deg bow approach of a train at some con- much care is necessary : nerer risk siderable distance from the line, a shot close by at first, bowever and if they are not frightened, bold the poppy seems; for re take them a little nearer on the member once the harm is done it next opportunity; or—what is far can't be ordone sare at a rast better-you turn them out when expenditure of time and patience. still young into a field by the side When I began breaking retrievers of the railway, and leave them ab many years ago, I had a wondersolutely free and unfettered to fully reliable old dog, and the gallop away as far as they like method I adopted when comwhen they hear the engine coming. mencing a puppy's education was The very fact of their being free to couple the recruit and the robs the situation of half its terrors, veteran together. The old one was steady as the Rock of Gib- from you. "Here I am,” he says ; raltar, and nothing would induce " I've done nothing wrong, and I'm him to go till told, and when the not afraid.” He should look on youngone forgot himself and sprang the whip—and dogs which have forward, I could instantly get hold been broken by a capable, evenof him, check him, correct him, tempered, and humane keeper do and give him his head again. I look on it-simply as a deterrent. broke dogs fairly well in this way, They know when they deserve but it is not the right way: punishment, and they know when besides, if you haven't the reliable they don't; and it is beautiful to old dog, you are ruined—horse, see a bold and dashing, yet perfectly foot, and artillery; for to couple a steady, dog with as much confidence young one to one on which you in his master as his master has in cannot rely is to spoil both : more- him-a dog which, after his educaover, one man one dog may pos- tion is finished, is never touched sibly be in the programme "when with the whip from one year's end we come in again.” The reason to the other. I have seen men I took to coupling, as far as I flog dogs as you beat carpets recollect, was to endeavour to pre- cruel and lazy ruffians, who have vent a pupil constantly straining let the time go by during which on a cord. I had never in those with no correction they might days met a thoroughly capable have moulded the puppy into breaker. I had seen dogs taken anything. Not even in the case out season after season, constantly of an old dog is this incessant and pulling at their keepers and their brutal flogging justifiable. If the keepers pulling at them,- for a animal has got to a certain age, dog is like a horse, the more you you may kill him, but pull at him the more he pulls at cure him; and a man of experience you; and by using the couples I ought to be able to decide when hoped to restrain a dog without there is a chance of success if you making a puller of him.
persevere, or when education is I was, as I have said, fairly degenerating into cruelty. successful ; but, I repeat, it is not The education — properly so the correct way. A thing I detes- called — of a retriever may be ted and eschewed altogether was a shortly summed up, and may be whip: now I am never without said to consist of only two lessons. one, because I have learned how Not much to teach him, you will to use it. If you see a dog afraid say; true, but you must keep him of a keeper when he cracks his at both till he has thoroughly maswhip, or skulking behind, or tered them. These lessons may inclined to bolt, you can have no aptly be subdivided under two surer proof of the man's imbecility heads : Steadiness and Retrieving and cruelty. When you call to a before you take him out shooting, dog and crack a whip to empha- and Steadiness and Retrieving sise your order, he should come when you have him in the field. bounding up to you, not run away It is impossible to exaggerate the
1 I once bought a setter from a man in rather a large way, who had a shooting adjoining mine. A worse-broken dog I never possessed. After the purchase I saw on two occasions dogs of his on the public road in full retreat for home! dogs, I mean, which he had out shooting with him. A well-broken dog is nerer cored.
importance of lesson No. 1. On it Dogs, and how to make them good depends the dog's whole future Companions,' a recipe for making career—whether you are to keep a puppy come to heel is given. It him, present him to a friend who is this :will give him a home, or endeavour to sell him. In the latter case, if “Begin by calling the pup to you you are an honest man, you will by saying 'heel,' keep him close behave to describe him as “partly him and say, 'hie on, giving a forward
hind you for a little while, then pat broken,” “only wants work,” “ will swing of your right arm. Practise make a first-class dog under a good this persistently, preventing him with keeper," &c., &c., all of which your stick from going in front of you, means that the animal has beaten and calling him up sharply if he lags you and
you want to get quit behind. Severe cases may be met by of him. If, on the contrary, you lead should be dispensed with. Accus
leading with a strap, but if possible a are successful with him in his first
tom your dog to come to heel on your lesson, you will be astonished how waving your right arm backwards.” easily you will teach him his second. The very first day you This is dreadfully “happy go have him out- be it on “the lucky.” Keep him close behind twelfth ” or “the first”—he will you for a little while.” “Call him up be all but steady and retrieve his sharply if he lags behind." If you birds well, and before another can do all this it is simple enough, month is over his head you will the battle's won : but a headstrong have a fairly good retriever. dog would be all over the place; a
Now, how are we to make a dog timid one would probably lie down reliable and steady? The first thing if you called him "sharply"—more towards that desirable result is to especially if you are flourishing a teach him his proper place; and stick about. that, whether on the Queen's high- You will never teach a young way or on the moor, is at your dog anything, except disobedience, heel, or, properly speaking, at by such a course of instruction. your left side, with his head in The dog will not understand, and line with your thigh, and this posi- will not know what is expected of tion he should never leave without him. You must at first keep him permission. He should run when always on the cord, but on no acyou run, stop when you stop, and count allowing him to pull at it. If wheel with
you to the right or left he lags behind or gets in front, give as the case may be. In 'Training him a reminder by jerking the
1" Are the poor dogs, then, never to have a run?” I hear some one ask. Most certainly they are. It is of the greatest importance, more especially for young dogs, to have a grand gallop every day; and if you are fortunate enough to have a field, they should be turned out for half an hour, or longer if you can manage it, to enjoy themselves to their heart's content. During this time they should be entirely on the “free list.” To try to enforce discipline is a mistake; and this you should impress on your kennelman, should you be unable to be present yourself. A dog chasing or being chased by his companions, and tumbling over and over in the grass, pays no heed to whistle or word of command, and you should not expect him to do so. When the hour for exercise is over, assert your authority again, watch your opportunity, and call each dog up, put the couples on if young ones are unruly, and march them back to their kennels, as the gentlemen in variegated suits are marched after work to their cells across the shingle at Portland or the dreary waste at Dartmoor.
cord, instantly easing your hand this part of a puppy's education by again and accompanying the action throwing something for him to by the words “Come back ”—that fetch, and they are quite pleased is, "to your proper place.” Have if he bounds after it in the most the whip ready in your hand to perfunctory fashion, won't come show him you are in earnest: a near you with it, and finally, after slight crack if your words are not you have entreated and retreated, attended to, or drawing the lash throws it down under the impresacross his forelegs if he threatens sion that, notwithstanding all the to be wild, will be quite sufficient. trouble he has taken, you are When he understands this on a rather displeased with him. The cord, keeps his place and does not verdict of most keepers under such pull at it, free him and try him circumstances would be, “It's no' without it; but on no account let that bad for the first time.” Now, him leave your heel, immediately it is as bad as bad can be. The you do so. Keep on cautioning him dog has committed two faults, by word and deed, put him on the which, unless promptly eradicated, cord again, occasionally freeing will cause you an endless amount him, and he will soon learn that of trouble. He has gone from you mean him to remain by you your heel without waiting for leave, under either condition. Many and he has failed in bringing the young dogs are spoilt by keepers object “to hand”—that is, right in their anxiety to get game. up to you in his mouth, and keepRather than let one bird or even a ing it there till you take it from wretched rabbit escape, they will him. A puppy, of course, is far slip a dog as if he was a candidate more eager to go after a ball? when for the Waterloo Cup, often, by he sees it rolling away, or anything the way, instigated thereto by else when flung away, than when their masters, who, caring for he is checked for a couple of nothing but the bag, shout at minutes. Then he is discouraged, them if there is a moment's delay. and in most instances seems to Under such circumstances neither forget all about it. By adopting keeper nor dog has a chance. On the following method, however, the other hand, by keeping your you will soon get him to take an pupil well in his place, watching a interest in his work, and he will bird struggling in the heather, or learn nothing he has to unlearn. a partridge running, as partridges Put the pupil on the cord, and the only can run, for a fence, you may, object you decide on using in his it is true, occasionally lose your mouth. He will in most cases be quarry altogether, but you will only too eager to take it from you. break your dog properly, and you If he should hesitate, a little perwill be rewarded in the long-run. suasion is all that is required.
And now, having taught your Keep him in his place exactly as pupil his proper place, how are we you have been in the habit of doing to teach him to retrieve? By pur- before you asked him to carry any. suing the same tactics—beginning thing. Take the object from him him on a cord, freeing him after and give it him back. Should he wards. Nearly every one begins drop it, replace it in his mouth,
1 A ball is a bad thing to use; they are apt to drop it, it runs away from them, and they take to playing with it. Something 10 or 12 inches long, and covered with cloth or leather, is much better,