Heb. vi. 3.
James iv.18

11 Cor. iv. 10. return again unto you, if God will. And he sailed from James iv.16. Ephesus. 22 And when he had landed at Cæsarea, and

gone up, and saluted the church, he went down to

Antioch. 23 And after he had spent some time there, he u Galileo 2:

departed, and went over {r all] the country of u Galatia

departed an ch. xiv..? and Phrygia in order, * strengthening all the disciples.

24 y And a certain Jew named Apollos, born at Alexan*dria, an eloquent man, 8 and mighty in the scriptures,

iv. 14.

xv. 32, 41. yl Cor. i. 12:

iii. 5, 6: iv.
6. Tit.iii. 13.

r omit : not in the original.

8 in the original : came to Ephesus, being mighty in the Scriptures. I must by all means keep this feast that suits a journey from Jerusalem (ch, xi. 27), cometh in Jerusalem," seems necessitated would not apply to one from Cæsarea. on the principle of being guided in doubt- and saluted the church] The payment of ful cases by the testimony of our most his vow is not mentioned, partly because ancient MSS. The text thus produced is it is understood from the mere mention of the shortest and simplest, and the facts, of the vow itself, ver. 18,- partly, perhaps, other glosses having been attempted on because it was privately done, and with no this verse, and of one MS. inserting the view to attract notice as in ch. xxi. words without altering the construction to 23.7 PAUL'S VISIT TO THE CUT RCHES suit them, and of other variations, tend IN GALATIA AND PARYGIA.— Eitber (1) perhaps to throw discredit on the insertion. Galatia is here a general term including The gloss, if such it be, has probably been Lycaonia, and St. Paul went by Derbe, Lysowing to an endeavour to conform the tra, Iconium, &c. as before in ch. xvi., or circumstances to those related in ch. xx. 16. (2) he did not visit Lycaonia this time, If the words are to stand, and for those but went through Cappadocia : to which who read them, it may still be interesting also the words "having passed through the to enquire at what feast they may be sup. upper tracts" (ch. xix. 1) seem to point, posed to point. (1) Not at the Passover : “upper Asia” being the country east of for the ordinary duration of the winter the Halys. We find Christian churcbes shutting up of the sea was till the vernal in Cappadocia, 1 Pet. i. l. On this equinox. And we are not at liberty to journey, as connected with the state of the assume an exceptional case, such as some Galatian churches, see Introduction to Gal. times occurred. Hence, if the voyage from $3.1. in order implies that he regularly Corinth at all approached the length of that visited the churches, each as they lay in from Philippi to Jerusalem in ch. sx., xxi., his route.-One work accomplished by him he would have set sail at a time when it in this journey was the ordaining (but would have been hardly possible. (2) Not apparently not collecting) a contribution at the Feast of Tabernacles. For if it were, for the poor saints at Jerusalem : see 1 Cor. he must have sailed from Corinth in August xvi. 1,- Timotheus and Erastus probably or September. Now, as he stayed there accompanied him, see ch. xix. 22; 2 Cor. something more than a year and a half, his i. l; and Gaius and Aristarchus, ch. ris. sea-voyage from Berca to Athens would in 29; and perhaps Titus, 2 Cor. xii. 18 al. this case have been made in the depth of (and Sosthenes ? 1 Cor. i. 1, but see on winter ; which (especially as a choice of land ver. 17). or water was open to him) is impossible. 24-28.] APOLLOS AT EPHESTS, AND IN (3) It remains, then, that the feast should ACHAIA. The name Apollos is abbre. have been Pentecost; at which Paul also viated from Apollonius, as Lucas from Luvisited Jerusalem, ch. xx. 16. The Apostle's canus, &c. born at Alexandria literally, promise of return was fulfilled ch, xix. 1 ff. an Alexandrian by race. Alexandria was

22. and gone up] to Jerusalem : the great seat of the Hellenistic or later for (1) it would be out of the question to Greek language, learning, and philosophy suppose that Paul made the long detour by (see ch. vi. 9). A large number of Jet's Cæsarea only to go up into the town from had been planted there by its founder, the beach, as supposed by most of those Alexander the Great. The celebrated who omit the disputed words in ver. 21, LXX version of the Old Test. was made and salute the disciples, -and (2) the ex- there under the Ptolemies. There took pression he went down to Antioch, which place that remarkable fusion of Greek

came to Ephesus. 25 This man t was instructed in the
way of the Lord; and being a fervent in the spirit, he z Rom. xii. 11.
spake and taught a diligently the things % of the Lord,
a knowing only the baptism of John. 26 And he began to a ch. xix. 8.
speak boldly in the synagogue : whom when Aquila and
Priscilla had heard, they took him unto them, and ex-
pounded unto him the way of God a more perfectly. 27 And
when he was disposed to pass into Achaia, the brethren
wrote, exhorting the disciples to receive him : who, when
he was come, bhelped them much which had believed b 1 Cor. ii.6.
through grace: 28 for he mightily convinced the Jews,
and that publickly, shewing by the scriptures that Jesus ochilder.
was Christ.

t render, had been.
u render, accurately, and below, more accurately. The word is the same.
X read, concerning Jesus.


[ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors]

Oriental, and Judaic elements of thought Lordin the ordinary text, it having been and belief, which was destined to enter so well imagined that he could not teach accuwidely, for good and for evil, into the rately the things concerning Jesus, if he minds and writings of Christians. We see did not know him to be the Messiah : in the providential calling of Apollos to the whereas by these words is imported that ministry, an instance of adaptation of the he knew and taught accurately the facts workman to the work. A masterly expo. respecting Jesus, but of the consequences sition of the Scriptures by a learned Hel. of that which he taught, of all which may lenist of Alexandria formed the most ap- be summed up in the doctrine of Christian propriate watering (1 Cor. iii. 6) for those baptism, he had no idea. knowing who had been planted by the pupil of only ...) Meyer well remarks, that it is Gamaliel. The word rendered eloquent not meant that he was absolutely ignorant may mean learned. But the former mean of the fact of there being such a thing as ing is most appropriate here, both because Christian baptism, but ignorant of its the peculiar kind of learning implied by being any thing different from that of it, acquaintance with stories and legends, John: he knew, or recognized in baptism would not be likely to be predicated of only that which the baptism of John was: Apollos, — and because the subsequent a sign of repentance.

26. more words, mighty in the Scriptures, sufficiently accurately) The former accuracy was only indicate his learning, and in what it lay. in facts : this is the still more expanded

25.] Apollos had received (from his accuracy of doctrine. That was merely youth?) the true doctrine of the Messiah- the things concerning Jesus," as He lived ship of Jesus, as pointed out by John the and ministered on earth: this included Baptist : doubtless from some disciple of also the promise of the Spirit, and its perJohn; but more than this he knew not. formance. 27. exhorting the disciples The doctrines of the Cross,—the Resurrec- to receive him] Probably this exhortation tion,-the outpouring of the Spirit,—these was given by Priscilla and Aquila princiwere unknown to him: but more particu- pally. It may have been from their account larly (from the words “knowing only the of the Corinthian church, that he was debaptism of John) the latter, as connected sirous to go to Achaia. through grace] with Christian baptism : see further on ch. These words may be joined with the verb xix. 2, 3.—The mistake of supposing that helped, implying that the grace was in him. he did not know Jesus to be the Messiah, But the rendering in the text is much more has arisen from the description of his subse. probable,-those who had believed through quent work at Corinth, ver. 28, but by no grace. “The for, which follows, should means follows from it: this he did before, be noticed. His coming was a valuable asbut not so completely. The same mistakesistance to the Christians against the Jews, has led to the alteration of Jesus into the in the controversies which had doubtless

iii. 5, 6.

b ch. viii. 10.

see 1 Sam. iii. 7.

a 1. Cor.1. 12: XIX. 1 And it came to pass, that, while a Apollos was

at Corinth, Paul having passed through the upper 2 coasts came to Ephesus : and finding certain disciples, 2 he said

unto them, a Have ye received the Holy Ghost since ye bch. viii. 10. believed? And they said unto him, bb We have not 80

much as heard whether there be any Holy Ghost. 3 Aud he

said unto them, Unto what then were ye baptized ? And och. xviii. 25. they said, Unto John's baptism. 4 Then said Paul,

Youth, I. 185,27, a John [c verily] baptized with the baptism of repentance, # 18: xiii. saying unto the people, that they should believe on him

which should come after him, that is, on [Christ] Jesus. e ch. viii. 16. 5 When they heard this, they were baptized e in the name

d Matt. iii. 11.

John i. 15, 27 30. ch. i. 5:

24, 25.

z render, parts, or tracts.
a render, Did ye receive the Holy Ghost when ye believed ?

b render, We did not so much as hear whether there were. Comit. been going on since Paul's departure.” Cony- even ... Here again, not, we hare beare and Howson, edn. 2, ii. p. 10. 28. not heard,' which would involve an abmightily convinced] The original word is a surdity: “for they could not be followers very forcible one,- he argued down, as we of Moses or of John the Baptist, without say, 'proved in their teeth:'and then it has hearing of the Holy Ghost" (Bengel);also the sense of continuity,- that this was but we did not hear, at the time of our not done once or twice, but continuously. conversion :-Our reception into the faith

CHAP. XIX. 1–40.] ARRIVAL, RESI. was unaccompanied by any preaching of DENCE, AND ACTS OF PAUL AT EPHESUS. the office or the gifts of the Spirit,- our

1. the upper tracts] By this name baptism was not followed by any imparting were known, the eastern parts of Asia of His gifts: we did not so much as hear Minor, beyond the river Halys, or in com- Him mentioned. The stress of the sentence parison with Ephesus, in the direction of is on hearing : so far from receiving the that river. certain disciples] These Holy Ghost, they did not even hear of His seem to have been in the same situation as existence. 3.] St. Paul's question Apollos, see on ch. xviii. 25. They cannot establishes the above rendering :-To what have been mere disciples of John, on ac- then (if ye did not so much as bear of the count of when ye believed, which can bear Holy Ghost at your first believing) were no meaning but that of believing on the ye baptized ? If the question and ansker Lord Jesus : but they had received only in ver. 2 regarded, as in A. V., the role John's baptism, and had had no proof of interval since their conversion, this enquiry the descent of the Holy Spirit, nor know would have been more naturally expressed ledge of His gifts. 2.] The indefinite in the perfect tense. Unto what past tense in the original should be faith- unto (with a view to, as introductory to fully rendered: not as A. V. `Have ye what profession? They answer, Unto (that received the Holy Ghost since ye believed?' indicated by) the baptism of John, riz.: but Did ye receive the Holy Ghost when repentance, and the believing on Jeses, ye became believers ? i. e..on your be then to come, but now (see ch. xviii. 25, coming believers, had ye the gifts of the note) the object of our faith. 5.) Two Spirit conferred on you ?' -as in ch. viii. singular perversions of this verse hare 16, 17. This is both grammatically neces. occurred : (1) the Anabaptists use it to sary, and absolutely demanded by the sense; authorize the repetition of Christian bapthe enquiry being, not as to any reception tism, whereas it is not Christian baptisia of the Holy Ghost during the period since which was repeated, seeing that John's baptheir baptism, but as to one simultaneous tism was not such, but only the baptism with their first reception into the church: which they now for the first time received; and their not having then received Him is and (2) some of the orthodox, wishing to accounted for by the deficiency of their wrest this weapon out of the hands of the baptism. We did not so much as Anabaptists, oddly enough suppose this hear] Literally, on the contrary not verse to belong still to Paul's discourse, and

xviii. 4.

xxviii. 23.

of the Lord Jesus. 6 And when Paul had flaid his hands fch. vi. 8: vili. upon them, the Holy Ghost came on them; and 8 they 8 ch. 11.4: x. spake with tongues, and prophesied. 7 And all the men were about twelve. 8 h And he went into the synagogue, h chini and spake boldly for the space of three months, disputing and persuading the things i concerning the kingdom of ich. i. 8:, God. 9 But k when divers were hardened, and believed ky Perl.it23

Jude 10. not, but spake evil 'of d that way before the multitude, he 1 see ch. ix.?:

xxii. 4: xxiv. departed from them, and separated the disciples, disputing 14. ver. 23. daily in the school of one Tyrannus. 10 And m this con- m see ch. ix, tinued by the space of two years; so that all they which


d render, the: see ch. ix. 2. to mean, and the people when they heard fact, such a baptism as this was a baptism him (John), were baptized into the name into the name of the Father, Son, and Holy of the Lord Jesus. This obviously is Ghost. As Jews, these men were already contrary to fact, historically : and would servants of the living God-and by putting leave our present narrative in a singular on the Son, they received in a new and state: for Paul, having treated their bap more gracious sense the Father also. And tism as insufficient, would thus proceed on in the sequel of their baptism, the impoit to impose his hands, as if it were suf sition of hands, they sensibly became reficient. in (into) the name of the cipients of God the Holy Ghost. Where Lord Jesus] Two questions arise here: (1) such manifestations were present, the form Was it the ordinary practice to rebaptize of words might be wanting; but with us, those who had been baptized either by who have them not, it is necessary and imJohn or by the disciples (John iv. 1 f.) perative. Mr. Howson regards (i. 517; before baptism became, by the effusion of ii. 13) St. Paul's question in our ver. 3 as the Holy Spirit, the bath of regenera. indicative that the name of the Holy Ghost tion?This we cannot definitely answer. was used in the baptismal formula. But That it was sometimes done, this incident the inference seems to me insecure. shews : but in all probability, in the cases 6.] See ch. viii. 17; x. 46, and note on of the majority of the original disciples, ch. ii. 4: and on the fact that they prothe greater baptism by the Holy Ghost phesied, ch. xi. 27, note. 9.Proand fire on the day of Pentecost super. bably the school of Tyrannus was a private seded the outward form or sign. The synagogue (called Beth Midrasch by the Apostles themselves received only this Jews), where he might assemble the bebaptism (besides probably that of John): lieving Jews quietly, and also invite the and most likely the same was the case with attendance of Gentiles to hear the word. the original believers. But of the three But it is also possible that, as commonly thousand who were added on the day of supposed, Tyrannus may have been a GenPentecost, very many must have been tile sophist. The name occurs as a proper already baptized by John; and all were name, 2 Macc. iv. 40. 10. two years? rebaptized without enquiry. (2) What We cannot derive any certain estimate of conclusion can we deduce from this verse the length of St. Paul's stay in Ephesus respecting the use or otherwise of baptism from these words,- even if we add the in the name of the Father, and the Son, three months of ver. 8,—for vv. 21, 22 and the Holy Ghost, in the apostolic admit of an interval after the expiration period ? The only answer must be, that at of the two years and three months. And that early time we have no indication of set his own expression, ch. xx. 31, “three formulæ in the administration of either whole years,” implies that it was longer sacrament. Such formulæ arose of neces- than from this chapter would at first sight sity, when precision in formal statement of appear. He probably (compare his an. doctrine became an absolute necessity in nounced intention, 1 Cor. xvi. 8, with his exthe church: and the materials for them pectation of meeting Titus at Troas, 2 Cor. were found ready in the word of God, who ii. 12, 13, which shews that he was not has graciously provided for all necessities of far off the time previously arranged) left His church in all time. But, in matter of Ephesus about or soon after the third Pen.

n Mark xvi. 20

ch. xiv. 3. och. v. 15. se

? Kings iv. 29.

p Matt. xii. 27 q see Mark ix.

38. Luke iz. 49.

dwelt in Asia heard the word of the Lord Jesus, both Jews n Mark Ivi. 20. and Greeks. 11 And n God wrought e special miracles by och. v. 15. see the hands of Paul : 12 ° so that from his body were brought

unto the sick handkerchiefs or aprons, and the diseases departed from them, and the evil spirits went out of them. 13 f P Then certain of the vagabond Jews, exorcists, I took upon them to call over them which had evil spirits the name of the Lord Jesus, saying, We adjure you by Jesus whom Paul preacheth. 14 And there were seven sons of one Sceva, a Jew, and chief of the priests, which did so. 15 And the evil spirit answered and 8 said, Jesus I know, and Paul I know; but who are ye? 16 And the man in whom the evil spirit was leaped on them, and overcame

h them, and prevailed against them, so that they fled out e literally, no common.

f render, But. 8 read, said unto them.

h read, them both.

tecost after that which he kept in Jerusa- foundation of His church. And Hetherefore lem. See Introd. to 1 Cor. $ 6. all endues him with this extraordinary power. they which dwelt in Asia] Hyperbolical: But to argue by analogy from such a -all had the opportunity, and probably case,-to suppose that because our Lord some of every considerable town availed was able, and Peter, and Paul, and in themselves of it. To this long teaching of Old Test. times Elisha, were enabled, to St. Paul the seven churches of Asia owe exert this peculiar power, therefore the their establishment. 11. no common mi- saine will be possessed by the body or racles) miracles of no ordinary kind. In relics of every real or supposed saint, is what they differed from the usual displays the height of folly and fanaticism. The of power by the Apostles, is presently true analogy tends directly the other way. related : viz. that even garments taken In no cases but these do we find the power, from him were endued with miraculous even in the apostolic days: and the general power. 12.) Diseases, and possession cessation of all extraordinary gifts of the by evil spirits, are here plainly distinguished Spirit would lead us to the inference that à from each other. The rationalists, and fortiori these, which were even then the semi-rationalists, are much troubled to rarest, have ceased also. 13.] See clear the fact related, that such hand. note on Matt. xii. 27, respecting the Jewish kerchiefs and aprons were instrumental exorcists. These men, seeing the success in working the cures, from participation of Paul's agency in casting out devils, in what they are pleased to call a popular adopt the name of Jesus in their own notion founded in superstition and error. exorcisms. 14. chief of the priests But in this and similar narratives (see ch. The word must be used in a wide sense. He v. 15, note) Christian faith finds no diffi. may have been chief of the priests resident culty whatever. All miraculous working is at Ephesus: or perhaps chief of one of the an exertion of the direct power of the All. twenty-four courses. 15.] The narpowerful; a suspension by Him of His or- rative, from describing the nature of the dinary laws : and whether He will use any attempt, passes to a single case in which it instrument in doing this, or what instru. was tried, and in which (see below) two ment, must depend altogether on His own only of the brothers were apparently conpurpose in the miracle—the effect to be cerned. 16. them both] The weight produced on the recipients, beholders, or of MSS. evidence for this reading is even hearers. Without His special selection surpassed by its internal probability. There and enabling, all instruments were vain; would be every reason, as seven bave been with these, all are capable. In the present before mentioned, for altering it: but no case, as before in ch. v. 15, it was His pur. imaginable one for substituting it for that pose to exalt His Apostle as the Herald of of the common text. Two only, it would His gospel, and to lay in Ephesus the strong seem, were thus employed on this particular

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