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7. Now he truly desires to break loose from sin, and begins to struggle with it. But though he strive with all his might, he cannot conquer : sin is mightier than he. He would fain escape; but he is so fast in prison, that he cannot get forth. He resolves against sin, but yet sins on : he sees the snare, and abhors, and runs into it. So much does his boasted reason avail - only to enhance his guilt, and increase his mi sery! Such is the freedom of his will; free only to evil; free to“ drink in iniquity like water;" to wander farther and farther from the living God, and do more“ despite to the Spirit of grace!”

8. The more he strives, wishes, labours to be free, the more does he feel his chains, the grievous chains of sin, wherewith Satan binds and “ leads him captive at his will :” his servant he is, though he repine ever so much; though he rebel, he cannot prevail. He is still in bondage and fear, by reason of sin : generally, of some outward sin, to which he is peculiarly disposed, either by nature, custom, or outward circumstances; but always, of some inward sin, some evil temper or unholy affection. And the more he frets against it, the more it prevails; he may bite but cannot break his chain. Thus he toils without end, repenting and sinning, and repenting and sinning again, till at length, the poor, sinful, helpless wretch, is even at his wit's end ; and can barely groan, “Oh wretched man that I am! who shall deliver me from the body of this death ?"

9. This whole struggle of one who is under the law, under the spirit of fear and bondage, is beautifully described by the apostle in the foregoing chapter, speaking in the person of an awakened man. “I,” saith he,“ was alive without the law once,” ver. 9: I had much life, wisdom, strength, and virtue; so I thought : “ but, when the commandment came, sin revived, and I died :" when the commandment, in its spiritual meaning, came to my heart, with the power of God, my inbred sin was stirred up, fretted, inflamed, and all my virtue died away. “ And the commandment which was ordained to life, I found to be unto death. For sin, taking occasion by the commandment, deceived me, and by it slew me,” ver. 10, 11: it came upon me unawares; slew all my hopes ; and plainly showed, in the midst of life I was in death. “Wherefore the law is holy, and the commandment holy, and just and good,” ver. 12: I no longer lay the blame on this, but on the corruption of miy own heart. I acknowledge that“ the law is spiritual : but I am carnal, sold under sin,” ver. 14: I now see both the spiritual nature of the law, and my own carnal, devilish heart sold under sin, totally enslaved: (like slaves bought with money, who were absolutely at their master's dispo sal :) " For that which I do, I allow not; for what I would, I do not; but what I hate, that I do," ver. 15: such is the bondage under which I groan; such the tyranny of my hard master. “ To will is present with me, but how to perform that which is good, I find not. For the good that I would, I do not; but the evil which I would not, that I do, ver. 18, 19. “I find a law, [an inward constraining power,] that when I would do good, evil is present with me. For I delight in (or consent to] the law of God, after the inward man,” ver. 21, 22: in my mind : so the apostle explains himself in the words that immediately follow : (and so o sow avopwtos, the inward man, is understood in all other Greek writers :) " But I see another law in my members, sanother constraining power,] warring against the law of my mind, or inward man, and

bringing me into captivity to the law (or power] of sin,” ver. 23: dragging me, as it were, at my conqueror's chariot wheels, into the very thing which my soul abhors. “Oh wretched man that I am! who shall deliver me from the body of this death ?" ver. 24. Who shall deliver me from this helpless, dying life, from this bondage of sin and misery? Till this is done, “ I myself” (or rather, that I, AUTOS &yw, that man I am now personating) “ with the mind,” or inward man, “serve the law of God;" my mind, my conscience is on God's side;" but with my flesh,” with my body,“ the law of sin,” ver. 25, being hurried away by a force I cannot resist.

10. How lively a portraiture is this of one under the law! One who feels the burden he cannot shake off; who pants after liberty, power, and love, but is in fear and bondage still; until the time that God answers the wretched man-crying out, " Who shall deliver me" from this bondage of sin, from this body of death ?—"The grace of God, through Jesus Christ thy Lord.”

III. 1. Then it is that this miserable bondage ends, and he is no more “under the law, but under grace." This state we are, thirdly, to consider; the state of one who has found grace or favour in the sight of God, even the Father; and who has the grace or power of the Holy Ghost, reigning in his heart: who has received, in the language of the apostle, the Spirit of adoption, whereby” he now cries," Abba, Father!"

2. “He cried unto the Lord in his trouble, and God delivers him out of his distress.” His eyes are opened in quite another manner than before, even to see a loving, gracious God. While he is calling, “I beseech thee, show me thy glory!"-he hears a voice in his inmost soul, “I will make all my goodness pass before thee, and I will proclaim the name of the Lord : I will be gracious to whom I will be gracious, and I will show mercy to whom I will show mercy.” And, it is not long before “ the Lord descends in the cloud, and proclaims the name of the Lord." Then he sees, but not with eyes of flesh and blood, “ The Lord, the Lord God, merciful and gracious, long suffering, and abundant in goodness and truth; keeping mercy for thousands, and forgiving iniquities, and transgressions, and sin."

3. Heavenly, healing light now breaks in upon his soul. He “ looks on him whom he had pierced ;” and “God, who out of darkness commanded light to shine, shineth in his heart.” He sees the light of the glorious love of God, in the face of Jesus Christ. He hath a divine “evidence of things not seen” by sense, even of " the deep things of God;" more particularly of the love of God, of his pardoning love to him that believes in Jesus. Overpowered with the sight, his whole soul cries out, “ My Lord and my God!" For he sees all his iniquities laid on Him, who “ bare them in his own body on the tree;" he beholds the Lamb of God taking away his sins. How clearly now does he discern, that “God was in Christ reconciling the world unto himself; making him sin for us, who knew no sin, that we might be made the righteousness of God through him;"_and that he himself is reconciled to God, by that blood of the covenant !,

4. Here end both the guilt and power of sin. He can now say, “I am crucified with Christ; nevertheless I live ; yet not. I, but Christ liveth in me: and the life which I now live in the flesh, (even in this mortal body,) I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me. and gave

VOL. I.

himself for me.” Here end remorse and sorrow of heart, and the anguish of a wounded spirit. “God turneth his heaviness into joy." He made sore, and now his hands bind up. Here ends also that bondage unto fear; for “ his heart standeth fast believing in the Lord.” še cannot fear any longer the wrath of God; for he knows it is now turned away from him, and looks upon him no more as an angry Judge, but as a loving Father. He cannot fear the devil, knowing he has " no powe" except it be given him from above.” He fears not hell; being an heir of the kingdom of heaven : consequently, he has no fear of death; by reason whereof he was in time past, for so many years,“ subject to bondage.” Rather, knowing that “if the earthly house of this tabernacle be dissolved, he hath a building of God, a house not made with hands, eternal in the heavens; he groaneth earnestly, desiring to be clothed upon with that house which is from heaven.” He groans to shake off this house of earth, that mortality may be swallowed up of life; knowing that God “hath wrought him for the self-same thing; who hath also given him the earnest of his Spirit.”

5. And, “where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is liberty;" liberty, not only from guilt and fear, but from sin, from that heaviest of all yokes, that basest of all bondage. His labour is not now in vain. The snare is broken, and he is delivered. He not only strives, but likewise prevails; he not only fights, but conquers also. “Henceforth he doth not serve sin," chap. vi, 6, &c. “He is dead unto sin, and alive unto God;" “ sin doth not now reign." even “in his mortal body," nor doth he “ obey it in the desires thereof." He does not “ yield his members as instruments of unrighteousness unto sin, but as instruments of righteousness unto God.” For“ being now made free from sin, he is become the servant of righteousness.”

6. Thus, “ having peace with God, through our Lord Jesus Christ," “ rejoicing in hope of the glory of God," and having power over all sin, over every evil desire, and temper, and word, and work, he is a living witness of the “ glorious liberty of the sons of God;" all of whom, being partakers of like precious faith, bear record with one voice, “ We have received the spirit of adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, Father!"

7. It is this Spirit which continually“ worketh in them, both to will and to do of his good pleasure." It is he that sheds the love of God abroad in their hearts, and the love of all mankind; thereby purifying their hearts from the love of the world, from the lust of the flesh, the lust of the eye, and the pride of life. It is by him they are delivered from anger and pride, from all vile and inordinate affections. In consequence they are delivered from evil words and works, from all unholiness of conversation ; doing no evil to any child of man, and being zealous of all good works.

8. To sum up all : the natural man neither fears nor loves God; one under the law, fears,-one under grace, loves him. The first has no light in the things of God, but walks in utter darkness; the second sees

he painful light of hell; the third, the joyous light of heaven. He that sleeps in death, has a false peace : he that is awakened, has no peace at all : he that believes, has true peace; the peace of God filling and ruling his heart. The heathen, baptized or unbaptized, hath a fancied liberty, which is indeed licentiousness; the Jew, or one under the Jewish dispensation, is in heavy, grievous bondage; the Christian

enjoys the true glorious liberty of the sons of God: An unawakened child of the devil, sins willingly; one that is awakened, sins unwillingly; a child of God sinneth not, but“ keepeth himself, and the wicked one toucheth him not.” To conclude : the natural man neither conquers nor fights; the man under the law fights with sin, but cannot conquer; the man under grace fights and conquers ; yea, is “ more than con queror, through him that loveth him.”

IV. 1. From this plain account of the threefold state of man, the natural, the legal, and the evangelical, it appears that it is not sufficient to divide mankind into sincere and insincere. A man may be sincere in any of these states; not only when he has the “spirit of adoption," but while he has the “spirit of bondage unto fear;" yea, while he has neither this fear, nor love. For undoubtedly there may be sincere heathens, as well as sincere Jews, or Christians. This circumstance, then, does by no means prove that a man is in a state of acceptance with God.

Examine yourselves, therefore, not only whether ye are sincere, “ but whether ye be in the faith.” Examine narrowly, (for it imports you much,) what is the ruling principle in your soul. Is it the love of God? Is it the fear of God? or is it neither one nor the other? Is it not rather the love of the world ? the love of pleasure ? or gain ? of ease? or reputation ? If so, you are not come so far as a Jew. Yu are but a heathen still. Have you heaven in your heart? Have you the spirit of adoption, ever crying, Abba, Father ? Or do you cry unto God, as “out of the belly of hell,” overwhelmed with sorrow and fear ? Or are you a stranger to this whole affair, and cannot imagine what I mean? Heathen, pull off the mask! Thou hast never put on Christ! Stand barefaced! Look up to heaven; and own before Him that liveth for ever and ever, thou hast no part, either among the sons or servants of God!

Whosoever thou art: dost thou commit sin, or dost thou not? If thou dost, is it willingly, or unwillingly? In either case God hath told thee whose thou art : “He that committeth sin is of the devil.” If thou committest it willingly, thou art his faithful servant: he will not fail to reward thy labour. If unwillingly; still thou art his servant God deliver thee out of his hands!

Art thou daily fighting against all sin ? and daily more than conqueror? I acknowledge thee for a child of God. Oh stand fast in thy glorious liberty! Art thou fighting, but not conquering ? striving for the mastery, but not able to attain ? Then thou art not yet a believer in Christ; but follow on, and thou shalt know the Lord. Art thou not fighting at all, but leading an easy, indolent, fashionable life? Oh how hast thou dared to name the name of Christ, only to make it a reproach among the heathen ? Awake, thou sleeper! Call upon thy God, before the deep swallow thee up!

2. Perhaps one reason why so many think of themselves more highly than they ought to think, why they do not discern what state they are in, is, because these several states of soul are often mingled together, and in some measure meet in one and the same person. Thus experience shows, that the legal state, or state of fear, is frequently mixed with the natural; for few men are so fast asleep in sin, but they are sometimes, more or less, awakened. As the Spirit of God does not

"" wait for the call of man,” so, at some times, he will be heard.' He puts them in fear, so that, for a season at least, the heathen “know themselves to be but men." They feel the burden of sin, and earnestly desire to flee from the wrath to come. But not long : they seldom suffer the arrows of conviction to go deep into their souls ; but quickly stifle the grace of God, and return to their wallowing in the mire.

In like manner, the evangelical state, or state of love, is frequently mixed with the legal. For few of those who have the spirit of bondage and fear, remain always without hope. The wise and gracious God rarely suffers this; “ for he remembereth that we are but dust;" and he willeth not that “ the flesh should fail before him, or the spirit which he hath made.” Therefore, at such times as he seeth good, he gives a dawning of light unto them that sit in darkness. He causes a part of his goodness to pass before them, and shows that he is a “God that heareth the prayer.” They see the promise, which is by faith in Christ Jesus, though it be yet afar off; and hereby they are encouraged to “run with patience the race which is set before them.”

3. Another reason why many deceive themselves, is, because they do not consider how far a man may go, and yet be in a natural, or, at best, a legal state. A man may be of a compassionate and a henevolent temper; he may be affable, courteous, generous, friendly; he may have some degree of meekness, patience, temperance, and of many other moral virtues. He may feel many desires of shaking off all vice, and of attaining higher degrees of virtue. He may abstain from much evil; perhaps from all that is grossly contrary to justice, mercy, or truth. He may do much good, may feed the hungry, clothe the naked, relieve the widow and fatherless. He may attend public worship, use prayer in private, read many books of devotion; and yet for all this, he may be a mere natural man, knowing neither himself nor God; equally a stranger to the spirit of fear and to that of love ; having neither repented, nor believed the gospel.

But suppose there were added to all this a deep conviction of sin, with much fear of the wrath of God; vehement desires to cast off every sin, and to fulfil all righteousness; frequent rejoicing in hope, and touches of love often glancing upon the soul ; yet neither do these prove a man to be under grace, to have true, living, Christian faith, unless the Spirit of adoption abide in his heart, unless he can continually cry, “ Abba, Father !”

4. Beware then, thou who art called by the name of Christ, that thou come not short of the mark of thy high calling. Beware thou rest not, either in a natural state, with too many that are accounted good Christians; or in a legal state, wherein those who are highly esteemed of men, are generally content to live and die. Nay, but God hath prepared better things for thee, if thou follow on till thou attain. Thou art not called to fear and tremble, like devils, but to rejoice and love, like the angels of God. “Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind, and with all thy strength.” Thou shalt “rejoice evermore ;" thou shalt “ pray without ceasing ;" thou shalt “ in every thing give thanks.” Thou shalt do tho will of God on earth as it is done in heaven. Oh prove thou“ what is that good, and acceptable, and perfect will of God.” Now present thyself “a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable to God.” “Whereunto thou hast

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