* Ιάκωβον τον αδελφός του Κυρίου. 19ά δε γράφω υμίν, ίδου ενώπιον του θεού ότι ου ψεύδομαι. 11 έπειτα ήλθον εις τα κλίματα της Συρίας και της Κιλικίας. 12 ήμην δε


ei , from which it cannot be sepa- éoteldav, imply a seaport and an emrated without harshness, and @repov barkation: and (2) Cæsarea, without carries râv åtootówy with it. It seems any addition to distinguish it, is always then that St James is here called an the principal city of the name. It Apostle, though it does not therefore appears therefore that St Luke reprefollow that he was one of the Twelve sents St Paul as sailing from Cæsarea (see the detached note, p. 95). The on his way to Tarsus; and comparing plural in the corresponding account this account with the notice here, we Acts ix. 27, 'He brought (Paul) to the must suppose either (1) That St Paul Apostles,' is also in favour of this did not go direct to Tarsus but visited sense, but this argument must not be Syria on the way; or (2) That he pressed.

visited Syria from Tarsus, and after ίδου ενώπιον του θεού] A form preaching there returned again to of asseveration equivalent to ‘I call Tarsus where he was found by Barnayou to witness,' and so followed by bas; St Luke having, on either of öru. See 2 Tim. ii. 14, iv. i dlapaptú- these hypotheses, omitted to record ρεσθαι ενώπιον του θεού. For ιδού else- this visit to Syria; or (3) That St Paul's where in the New Testament is an in- words here 'Syria and Cilicia' are not terjection or adverb, never a verb, so intended to describe the order in that there is an objection to making it which he visited the two countries. govern őt. here. Perhaps however This last is the most probable suppothe occurrence of ide ori in the Lxx, sition. Cilicia has geographically a Ps. cxix. 159, Lam. i. 20, may justify greater affinity with Syria than with such a construction here. The strength Asia Minor. See Conybeare and of St Paul's language is to be explained Howson, I. p. 130. The less important by the unscrupulous calumnies cast country is here named after the more upon him by his enemies. See the

important. 'Cilicia,' says Ewald, 'was note 1 Thess. v. 27.

constantly little better than an appen21. In the corresponding narrative dage of Syria,' Gesch. des V. Isr. VI. of St Luke it is related that the bre- p. 406. At this time however it was thren at Jerusalem, discovering the under a separate administration. The plot against St Paul's life, “took him words tà klimata seem to show that down to Cæsarea and despatched him 'Syria and Cilicia' are here mento Tarsus' (Acts ix. 30); and later on, tioned under one general expression, that Barnabas went to Tarsus and and not as two distinct districts. sought out Saul, and having found rà klipata] Rom. xv. 23, 2 Cor. him brought him to Antioch, where

A comparatively late word, they taught for whole year before see Lobeck Paral. p. 418. It is found returning to Jerusalem (xi. 25-30). in Pseudo-Aristot. de Mundo c. x, and The Cæsarea mentioned there is several times in Polybius. doubtless Stratonis, and not Philippi, 22. ήμην αγνοούμενος κ.τ.λ.] “I as some maintain. Not only was this remained personally unknown. A the more probable route for him to strong form of the imperfect, as åkoútake, but St Luke's language requires OVTES Koay "they kept hearing' (ver. it; for (1) The words katńyayov, étart- 23): see Winer, 9 xlv. 5, p. 437 sq.

xi. 10.

αγνοούμενος των προσώπω ταϊς εκκλησίαις της Ιουδαίας ταϊς εν Χριστώ, 23 μόνον δε ακούοντες ήσαν ότι ο διώκων ημάς ποτέ νυν ευαγγελίζεται την πίστιν ήν ποτε επόρθει, 24 και εδόξαζον εν εμοί τον θεόν.

ταις εκκλησίαις κ.τ.λ.] unlmoon to So it is used frequently in introducing the Churches of Judæa' generally, as a quotation, e.g. Gal. iii. 10. distinguished from that of Jerusalem; ο διώκων ημάς ποτέ) Our percomp. John iii. 22. To the latter secutor of former times'; ο διώκων he could not have failed to be known, being used as a substantive, i.e. withas might be inferred from the ac- out reference to time, as Matt. xxvii. count here, even without the nar- 40 ο καταλύων τον ναόν: see Winer, rative of his energetic preaching in § xlv. 7, p. 444. On the position of the Acts. From Jerusalem he was ποτέ, see the note on ver. 13. hurried off to Cæsarea, and there em- την πίστιν] It is a striking proof of barking he left the shores of Pales- the large space occupied by 'faith'in tine. The other churches of Judæa the mind of the infant Church, that it therefore had no opportunity of know- should so soon have passed into a syning him. Judæa is here distinguished onym for the Gospel. See Acts vi. 7. from Jerusalem, as Italy is frequently Here its meaning seems to hover bedistinguished from Rome, e.g. pro- tween the Gospel and the Church. bably Hebr. xiii. 24. The addition For the various senses of πίστις, see ταις εν Χριστώ was necessary when the notes on iii. 23, vi. 10, and the speaking of the Christian brother- detached note on the term faith.' hoods of Judæa; for the unconverted 24. εν εμοί] See the note ver. 16, Jewish communities might still be and comp. Is. xlix. 3 δούλός μου εί called 'the Churches of Judæa.' See συ Ισραήλ και εν σοι ενδοξασθήσομαι. the note on I Thess. ii. 14, των εκ- 'He does not say,' adds Chrysostom, κλησιών του θεού των ουσών εν τη “they marvelled at me, they praisΙουδαία εν Χριστώ Ιησού.

ed me, they were struck with ad23. ότι] introduces an abrupt change miration of me, but he attributes from the oblique to the direct mode all to grace. They glorified God, he of speaking, e.g. Acts xiv. 22, xxiji. 22.

says, in me.'

St Paul's sojourn in Arabia.

A veil of thick darkness hangs over St Paul's visit Arabia. Of Obscurity the scenes among which he moved, of the thoughts and occupations which of the in

cident. engaged him while there, of all the circumstances of a crisis which must have shaped the whole tenour of his after life, absolutely nothing is known. 'Immediately,' says St Paul, 'I went away into Arabia.' The historian passes over the incident without a mention. It is a mysterious pause, a moment of suspense in the Apostle's history, a breathless calm which ushers in the tumultuous storm of his active missionary life.

Yet it may be useful to review the speculations to which this incident has given rise, even though we cannot hope to arrive at any definite result; for, if such a review bears no other fruit, it will at least bring out more clearly the significance of the incident itself. Of the place of the Apostle's sojourn various opinions have been beld. Conjec.

tures as to Arabia is a vague term, and affords scope for much conjecture.

the place. 1. The Arabic translator', whose language gives him a fictitious claim (1) El Belto a hearing on such a point, renders the passage 'Immediately I went ka. to El Belka.' In like manner in Gal. iv. 25 he translates, “This Hagar is Mount Sinai in El Belka, and is contiguous to Jerusalem. Now the only district, so far as I can discover, which bears or bas borne the name of El Belka, is the region lying to the cast and north-east of the Dead Sea?. If so, how are we to account for this translation of 'Apaßia by El Belka ? That the same rendering of the word in both passages arose from the translator's connecting them together in some way, can scarcely be doubted. Was his starting-point then a misapprehension of the meaning of ovvotoixei in the second passage, which he renders 'is contiguous tos,' and arguing from this, did he suppose that part of Arabia to be meant in both passages, which was nearest to Jerusalem ? Or on the other hand, did he start from some tradition of St Paul's preaching in 'El Belka,' and having thus defined from the first passage the meaning of 'Arabia,' did he apply it to the second passage also ? But in any case how could he talk of Mount Sinai in ‘El Belka'? Was this ignorance of geography? or must we resort to the improbable supposition that some wandering Arab tribe, which gave its name to the country in the neighbourhood of the Dead Sea, at one time occupied the region about Sinai? At all events the tradition here preserved about St Paul, if it be a tradition, is of little worth, as the translator seems to have lived at a comparatively late date*.

1 The Arabic version of the Poly. sq, Stanley's Sinai and Palestine pp. glotts, which wasmade directly from the 95, 319. Greek. The translator not unfrequently 3 For this rendering however he gives geographical comments. See Hug might plead the authority of several Einleit. g cix, 1. p. 431. The other ancient commentators. See the notes Arabic version, the Erpenian, translated

on iv, 25. from the Syriac, retains 'Arabia.'

* Hug 1. 0. states that the trans. 9 See Burckhardt Trav. in Syria lator has unexpectedly revealed his App. III, Ritter Erdkunde xII. p. 426 country by his rendering of Acts ii. 10,


(2) The 2. Arabia, in the widest use of the term, might extend to the gates country of Damascus, and even include that city itself. “You cannot any of you near Da

deny,' says Justin, arguing against his Jew as to the interpretation of a passage in one of the prophets, 'that Damascus belongs and did belong to Arabia, though now it has been assigned to Syrophænicial.' Thus no very distant journey would be necessary to reach Arabia. A retirement in the immediate neighbourhood of Damascus would suffice, and such a visit, especially if it were brief, might well be passed over by the historian as a merely temporary interruption of the Apostle's long residence in that city, which was unknown to him, or which knowing, he did not care to record. Into these wild regions then, beyond the sway of Roman dominion, beyond the reach of civilization, far away from all his old haunts and associations, it is thought that the Apostle plunged himself in the first tumult of his newly-acquired experiences

This explanation however is open to objection. It gives to 'Arabia' an extension, which at all events seems not to have been common, and which even the passage of Justin shows to have required some sort of justification. It separates the Arabia of the first chapter from the Arabia of the fourth. And lastly, it deprives this visit of a significance which, on a more probable hypothesis, it possesses in relation to this crisis of

St Paul's life. (3) Mount 3. For if we suppose that the Apostle at this critical moment betook Sinai. himself to the Sinaitic peninsula, the scene of the giving of the law, then

his visit to Arabia becomes full of meaning. He was attracted thither by a spirit akin to that which formerly had driven Elijah to the same regions. Standing on the threshold of the new covenant, he was anxious to look upon the birthplace of the old : that dwelling for a while in seclusion in the presence of the mount that burned with fire,' he might punder over the transient glories of the 'ministration of death,' and apprehend its real purpose in relation to the more glorious covenant which

كورتنا a doubt however that here


τα μέρη της Λιβύης της κατά Κυρήνην, , μηται τη Συροφοινίκη λεγομένη seem to "and the territories of Africa which refer to the arrangement of these prois our country. There can scarcely be vinces by Hadrian. See Becker and

Marquardt Röm. Alterth. III. 1, p. 195

sqq and comp. [Bardesanes] de Fato, country' is a corrupt reading of Lis jy in Cureton's Spicil. Syr. p. 30. On •Cyrene,' the change involving only a

the limits of Arabia see also Ephr. Syr. slight alteration in one letter. See Op. Syr. I. p. 464 sq. Lagarde de N. T. ad vers. Orient. fidem

2 See the instructive passage in edendo, Berl. 1857, p. 3, referred to in

Ewald, Gesch. des Volkes I8r. VI. p. 398. Bleek's Einl. p. 737. Such geographi

Ewald however, though he takes St cal notices as that of El Belka point to

Paul into this region, guards against a more eastern origin.

the objections which I have alleged in 1 Dial. c. Tryph. p. 305 A. See also

the text, by supposing him to travel as other authorities in Conybeare and

far as Sinai also (p. 400). Howson, 1. p. 117,118. Tertullian (adv.

3 1 Kings xix. 8–18. It is worth Jud. c. 9 and adv. Marc. iii. 13) ob

noticing that this region is connected viously copies Justin and must not be

with Damascus in the history of Elijah considered an independent authority.

as well as of St Paul ; 'Go return on The words of Justin el kal vûv a poovevé.

thy way to the wilderness of Damascus.'

this 80

was now to supplant it. Here, surrounded by the children of the desert, the descendauts of Hagar the bondwoman, he read the true meaning and power of the law? In the rugged and barren region, whence it issued, Signifihe saw a fit type of that bleak desolation which it created and was in- cance of tended to create in the soul of man. In the midst of such scenes and

journ. associations, his spirit was attuned to harmony with his divine mission, and fitted to receive fresh 'visions and revelations of the Lord.' Thus in the wilderness of Sinai, as on the Mount of the transfiguration, the three dispensations met in one. Here Moses had received the tables of the law amid fire and tempest and thick darkness. Here again Elijah, the typical prophet, listened to the voice of God, and sped forth refreshed on his mission of righteousness. And here lastly, in the fulness of time, St Paul, the greatest preacher of Him of whom both the law and the prophets spoke, was strengthened and sanctified for his great work, was taught the breadth as well as the depth of the riches of God's wisdom, and transformed from the champion of a bigoted and narrow tradition into the large-hearted Apostle of the Gentiles?.

What was the length of this sojourn we can only conjecture. The Its durainterval between his conversion and his first visit to Jerusalem, St Paul tion. here states to have been three years. The notices of time in St Luke are vague, but not contradictory to this statements. From Dainascus St Paul tells us he went away into Arabia, whence he returned to Damascus. St Luke represents him as preaching actively in this city after his conversion, not mentioning and apparently not aware of any interruption, though his narrative is not inconsistent with such. It seems probable then that St Paul's visit to Arabia took place early in this period before he

1 A stronger argument for St Paul's Acts ix. 43, xviii. 18, xxvii. 7. Cervisit to Sinai might be drawn from his tainly the idea connected with ikavos reference to Hagar, the supposed Ara- in his language is that of largeness rabic name of Sinai (Gal. iv. 25), which ther than smallness ; comp. Luke vii. he was not likely to have heard any. 12, Acts XX. 37 (ικανός κλαυθμός). In where but on the spot : comp. Stanley the Lxx it is frequently employed to Sinai and Palestine p. 50. But the translate '70"mighty,' e.g. Ruth i. 20, reading and the interpretation alike are 21. Again the wide use of the Hebrew highly doubtful. See the notes there. D'D', which St Luke is copying, allows

The significance of Sinai, as the of almost any extension of time. Hence holy place of inspiration, will be felt πολλαι ημέραι in the LΧΧ denotes any by readers of Tancred.

indefinite period however long; Gen. 3 The notices of time in the narra- xxxvii. 34, 2 Sam. xiv. 2, 1 Kings iii. tive of the Acts are these: He remain- 11 ('a long life'). Even Demosthenes, ed with the disciples in Damascus some de Cor. p. 258, can speak of the indays (nuépas tivàs) and straightway (eů. terval between the battles of Haliartus Déws) he began to preach (èkýpuo o ev)... and Corinth a8 ου πολλαι ημέραι, though and Saul was the more strengthened... they were fought in different years and and when many days (nuépai Ikaval) many important occurrences happened were accomplishing (drinpoûvto) the in the mean time. The difference be. Jews took counsel to slay him, in con. tween the vague ‘many days' of the sequence of which he left and went to Acts and the definite "three years' of Jerusalem (ix. 20—26). 'Huépai lkaval the Epistle is such as might be expectis an indefinite period in St Luke, which ed from the circumstances of the two may vary according to circumstances; writers.

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