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can be said to be the act of the aristocratic branc, ession si.ould be et forcel by another, and t of our constitution. The power of the monarchic fore, contrary to our just rights as possessing, or branch we, with pleasure, acknowledge resides in at least having a just title to possess, all the liberthe king, wbo may act either in person or by his re. ties and 1MMUNITIES of British subjects, a standing presentative; and I freely confess that I can see no army was established among us in time of peace; reason wby a PROCLAMATION for ruising in Ame and evidently for the purpose of effecting that, rica, issued by the king's sole authority, would not which it was one principle design of the founders be equally consistent with our own constitution, of the constitution to prevent, (when they declared and therefore equally binding upon us with ibe lute a standing army in a time of peace to be AGAINST acts of the British parliament for taxing us; for it is LAW) namely, for the enforcement of obedience plain, that if there is any validity in those acts, it acts whiclı, upon fair-examination, appeared to must arise altogether from the monarchical branch bę unjust and unconstitutional. of the legislature: and I fur: her think that it woul :
The ruinous consequences of standing armies to be at least as equitable; for I do not conceive it to free communities, may be seen in the histories of be of the leasi importance to us by whom our pro-SYÁACUST, Rome, and many other once flourishing perty is taken away, so long as it is taken without states; some of which have now scarce a name! our consent; and I am very much at a loss to know their baneful influence is most suddenly felt, when by what figure of rhetoric, the inhabitants of this
they are placed in populous cities; for, by a corprovince can be called FIEE SUBJECTS, when they (ruption of morals, the public happiness is imideare obliged to obey implicitly, such laws as are made diately affected? and that this is one of the effects for them by men three thousand miles off, whom of quartering troops in a populous city, is a truth, they know not, and whom they never empoweredo which many a mourning parent, many a lost, deto act for them, or how they can be said to have pairing child in this metropolis, must bear a very PROPERTY, when a body of men, over whom they nelancholy testimony. Soldiers are also taught have not the least control, and who are not in any to consider arms as the only arbiters by which way accountable to them, shali oblige them to de every dispute is to be decided between contending liver up any part, or the whole of their substance, states;-they are instructed implicitly to obey their without even asking their consent: and yet whoever commanders, without enquiring into the justice of pretends that the late acts of the British parlia- he cause they are engaged to support: bence it is, ment for taxing America ought to be deemed bind- that they are ever to be dreaded as the ready ening upon us, must admit at ance that we are ab- gines of tyranny and oppression. And it is too obsolute SLAVE6, and have no property of our servable that they are prone to introduce the same own; or else that we may be FREEMEN, and at the mode of decision in the disputes of individuals, and same time under a necessity of obeying the arbitru- from thence have often arisen greai animosites bery coinmands of those over whom we have no con- twee: then and the inhabitants, who, whilst in a trul or influence, and illat we may HAVE PROPERTY naked, defenceless state, are frequently insulted or our own, which is entirely at the disposal of and abused by an armed soldiery. And this will another. Such gross absurdities, I believe will not be more especially the case, when the troops are be relished in this enlightened age: and it can be inforned that the intention of their being stationed no matter of wonder that the people quickly per in any city, is to OVERAWE THE INHABITANTS. That ceived, and seriously complained of the inroads this was the avowed design of stationing an armed wbich these acts must unavoidably make upon their force in this town, is sufficiently known; and we, liberty, and of the hazard to which their whole pro-iny fellow citizens, have seen, we have felt the traperty is by them exposed; for, if they may be láse) gical effects!—THE FATAL FIFTH OF MARCII, without their consent, even in the smallest trifle, 1770, CAN NEVER BE FORGOTTEN—The horrors of they may also, without their consent, be deprived TUAT DREADFUL sigut are but too deeply impressed of every thing they possess, although never so va on our hearts-Language is too feeble to paint luable, never so dear. Certainly it never entered the emotion of our souls, when our streets were the hearts of our ancestors, that af er so many dan slained with the BLOOD OF OUR BRETUREN, -when gers in this then desolate wilderness, their bard. our ears were wounded by the groans of the dying, earned property should be at the disposal of the and our eyes were tormented with the sight of the British parliament; and as it was soon found that mangled bodies of the dead.- When our alarmed this taxation could not be supported by reason and imagination presented to our view our houses wrapt argument, it seemed necessary that one act of op. in l.unes,—our children subjected to the barbarous
Caprice of the raging soldiery,—our beauteous vir-wit regard to us, is truly astonishing! what can be gins exposed to all the insolence of unbridled pis proposed by the repeated attacks marle upon our sion,-our virtuous wives, endeared to us by every freedom, I really cannot sırmjse; even leaving jus: tender tie, falling a sacrifice to worse than brutal tice and humanity out of ques:ion. I do not know violence, and perhaps, like the famed Lucretia, one single advantage which can arise to the Bri. distracted with anguish and despair, ending their tish nation, from our being enslaved:--I know not wretched lives by their own fair hands. When of any gains, which can be wrung from us by opwe beheld the authors of our distress parading in pression, which they may not obtain from us by our our streets, or drawn up in a regular buttalia, as own consent, in the smooth channel of commerces though in a bostile city, our hearts beat to arms; we wish the wealth and prosperity of Britain; wa se snatched our weapons, almost resolved, by cne contribute largely to both. Doth what we contridecisive stroke, to avenge the death of our slauch- bute lose all its value, because it is done voluntari. TERED BUETANEN, and to secure from future dan- ly? the amazing increase of riches to Britain, the ger, all that we held most dear: but propitious great rise of the value of her lands, the fourishing heaven forbade the bloody carnage, and saved the state of her navy, are striking proofs of the advan. threatned victims of our too keen resentment, nor tages derived to her from her commerce with the by their dissipline, not by their regular array, -no, colonies; and it is our earnest desire that she may it wis royal GEONGE's livery that proved their still continue to enjoy the same emoluments, until shield--it was that which turned the pointed en. her ştreets are paved with AMERICAN GOLD; only, gines of destruction from their breasis.* Th let us have the pleasure of calling it our own, whilst thoughts of vengeance were soon buried in our in it is in our o vn hands; but this it seems is too great bred affection to Great Britain, and calin reaso. a favor, we are to be governed by the absolute comdictated a inethod of removing the troops more mand of others; our property is to be taken away withmild than an immediate recurse to the sword. out our consent-if we complain, our complaints are With unite.l efforts you urged the immediate d treated with contempt; if we assert our rights, that parture of the troops from the towin--you urgel assertion is deemed insolence; if we humbly offer it, with a resolution which ensured success
yo'l to submit the matter to the impartial decision of obtained your wishes, and the removal of the troops reason, the swond is judged the most proper arguwas effected, without one drop of their blooid being ment to silence our murmurs! but this cannot long shed by the inhabitants.
be the case-surely the British nation will not suf. The iminediate actors in the tragedy of THAT
fer the reputation of their justice and their honor, STOUT, were surrendered to justice.--It is noi
to be thus sported away by a capricious ministry; mine to say how far they were guilty? they no, they will in a short time open their eyes to bave been tried by the country and ACQUITTED
to their true interest: they nourish in their of murder! and they are not to be again arraigned at own breasts, a noble love of liberty; they hold an earthly bar: but, surely the men who bave promis.
lier dear, and they know that all who bave once cuously scattered death amidst the innocent inhabi possessed her charms, had rather die than suffer tanis of a populous city, ought to see well to it, that
her to be torn from their embraces--they are also they be prepared to stand at the bar of an omniscient sensible that Britain is so deeply interested in the judge! and all who contrived or encouraged the prosperity of the colonies, that she must eventually stationing troops in this place have reasons of eter- feel every wound given to their freedom; they can. nal importance, to reflect with deep contrition, on
not be ignorant that more dependence may be their base designs, and bumbly to repent of their placed on the aflections of a brother, than on the
forced service of a slave; they must approve your impious machinations.
efforts for the preservation of your rights; from a The infatuation which hath seemed, for a num. sympathy of soul they must pray for your success: ber of years, to prevail in the 'British Councils, and I doubt not but they will, e'er long, exert them. t have the stronges' reason to believe that I
selves effectually, to redress your grievances. have mentioned the only circumstance wlich savel Evan in the dissolute reign of king CARLES II. when the troops from destruction. It was ther, and now the house of commons impeached the earl of Clais, the opinion of those who were best acquainted with the state of affairs at that time, that had thrice rendon of high treason, the first article on which that number of troops, belonging to any power at they founded their accusation was, that "he had de. open war with us, been in this town, in the same signed a standing'army to be raised, anılan govern the exposed condition, scarce a man would bave lived to have seen the morning light.
kingdom therehy." Aod the eighth article was, that
she had introduced an arbitrary gvernment into his vain, if you, our offspring, want valor to repel the majesty's plantation." A terrifying example to those assaults of her invaders! Stain not the glory of who are now forging chains for this couNTRY. your worthy ancestors, but like them resolve, ne
You have, my friends and countrymen, frustrated Ver to part with your birth-right; be wise in your the designs of your enemies, by your unanimity and deliberations, and determined in your exertions
for the preservation of your liberties. Follow not fortitude: it was your union and determined spirit
the dictates of passion, but enlist yourselves under which espelled those troops, who polluted your streets with is NOCENT BLOOD. You bave appointed the sacred banner of reason; use every method in this anniversary as a standard memorial of the your power to secure your rights; at least prevent
the curses of posterity from being heaped upon BLOODY CONSEQUEXCES OF PLACING AN ARMED FORCE IN A POPULOUS city, and of your deliverance from your memories. the dangers which then seemed to hang over your If you, with united zeal and fortitude, oppose heads; and I am confident that you never will be the torrent of oppression; if you feel the true fire tray the least want of spirit when called upon to of patriotism burning in your bre ts: if you, from guard your freedom. None but they who set a just your souls, despise the most gaudy dress that sla. value upon the blessings of liberty are worthy to very can wear; if you really prefer the lonely cot. enjoy her--your illustrious fathers were her zeal. tage (whilst blest with liberty) to gilded palaces, ous votaries—when the blasting frowns of tyranny surrounded with the ensigns of slavery, you may drove ber from public view, they clasped her in bave the fullest assurance that tyranny, with her their arms, they cherished her in their generous whole accursed train, will hide their hideous heads bosoms, they brought her safe over the rough in confusion, shame and despair--if you perform ocean, and fixed her seat in this then dreary wiider your part, you must have the strongest confidence, ness; they nursed her infant age with the most ten- that THE SAME ALMIGHTY BEING who protected your der care; for her sake, they patiently bore the se. pious and venerable forefathers--who enabled them verest hardships; for her support, they underwent to turn a barren wilderness into a fruitful field, the most rugged toils: in her defence, tbey boldly who so often made bare his arm for their salvation, encountered the most alarming dangers; neither will still be mindful of you, their offspring. the ravenous beasts that ranged the woods for prey, May this ALMIGHTY BEING graciously pre nor the more furious savages of the wilderness, side in all our councils. May he direct us to such could damp their ardor!-Whilst with one land measures as he himself shall approve, and be pleas. they broke the stubborn glebe, with the other they ed to bless. May we ever be a people favored of grasped their weapons, ever ready to protect her GOD. May our land be a land of liberty, the seat from danger. No sacrifice, not even their own of virtue, the asylum of the oppressed, a name and blood, was esteemed too rich a libation for her alla praise in the whole earth, until the last shock of tar! God prospered their valor; they preserved her time shall bury the empires of the world in one brilliancy unsullied; they enjoyed her whilst they common undistinguished ruin! lived, and dying, bequeathed the dear inheritance to your care. And as tbey left you this glorious
ORATION, DELIVERED AT BOSTON, MARCH 5, 1773,
BY DR. BENJAMIN CHURCH. legacy, they have undoubtedly transmitted to you
Impius hæc culta novalia miles habebit? some portion of their noble spirit, to inspire you Barbarus bas segetes? in quo discordia cives with virtue to merit ber, and courage to preserve
perduxit miseros. in queís consevimus agros?
Virgil, Ecl. I. her: you surely cannot, with such examples before
O passi graviora, dabit Deus bis quoque finem; your eyes, as every page of the history of this coun.
-revocate animos, mæstuinque timorem
mittite, fursan et hæc olio eminisse juvabit try affords, suffer your liberlies to be ravished!
Virgil, Ene. I, from you by lawless force, or cajoled away by flat.
From a consciousness of inability, NY FRIENDS tery and fraud.
AND FELLOW COUNTRYMEX, I have repeatedly de. The voice of your fathers' blood cries to you from clined the duties of this anniversary. Nothing but the ground, my sors SCORN TO BE SLAVES! in vain a firm attachment to the tottering liberties of we met the frowns of tyrants--in vain we crossed America* added to the the irresistible importunity the boisterous ocean, found a new world, and pre- of some valued friends, could bave induced me (es. pared it for the happy residence of LIBERTY—in pecially with a very short notice) so far as to mis. vain we toiled-in vain we fought-we bled in
•Periculosæ plenum opus alex At simul heroum laudes, et facua parentis
Tractas, incedis per ignes Jam legere, et que sait poteris cognoscere virtus.Virg.
Suppositos cineri doloso.-ILORACI..
take my abilities, as to render the utmost extent, instruments, and passive objects of the caprice of of your candor truly indispensable.
an individua). When man was unconnected by social obliga. Mankind, apprised of their privileges, in being tions; abborrent to every idea dependence; rational and free, in prescribing civil laws to them. actuated by a savage ferocity of mind, displayed in selves, had surely no intention of being enchained the brutality of his manners, the necessary exi. by any of their equals; and although they submitted gencies of each individual, naturally impelled him voluntary adherents to certain laws, for the sake of to acts of treachery, violence and murder. mutual security and bappiness, they, no doubt, in
The miseries of mankind thus proclaiming eter.tended by the original compact, a permanent ex. nal war with their species, led them, probably, to emption of the subject body from any claims, which consult certain measures to arrest the current of were not expressly surrendered, for the purpose of such outrageous enormities.
obtaining the security and defence of the whole.
Can it possibly be conceived, that they would vo. A sense of their wants and weakness, in a state luntarily be enslaved by a power of their own creaof nature, doubtless inclined them to such recipro.
tion. cal aids and support, as eventually established society.
The constitution of a magistrate does not, there.
fore, take away that lawful defence against force and Men then began to incorporate; subordination
injury, allowed by the law of nature; we are not to succeeded to independence; order to anarchy; and
obey a prince, ruling above the limits of the power passions were disarmed by civilization: society lent entrusted to him; for the coómonwealth, by conits aid to secure the weak from oppression, who
stituting a head, does not deprive itself of the wisely took shelter within the sanctuary of law.
power of its own preservation.* Government and Encreasing, society afterwards exacted, that the magistracy, whether supreme or subordinate, is a tacit coniract made with her by each individual, at mere human ordinance, and the laws of every nathe time of his being incorporated, should receive tion are the measure of magistratical power: and a more solemn form to become authentic and irre. kings, the servants of the state, when they degene. fragable; the main object being to add force to the rate into tyrants, forfeit their right to government. laws, proportionate to the power and extent of Breach of trust in a governor,for attempting to the body corporate, whose energy they were to di- enlarge a limited power, effectually absolves sub. rect.
jects from every bond of covenant and peace; the Then society availed herself of the sacrifice of crimes acted by a king against the people, are the that liberty and that natural equality of which we
highest treason against the highest law among men. are all conscious: superiors and magistrates were "If the king ( says Grotius hath one part of appointed, and mankind submitted to a civil and the supreme power, and the other part is in the political subordination. This is truly a glorious senate or people, when such a king shall invade inspiration of reason, by whose influence, notwith. that part which doth not belong to him, it shall standing the inclination we have for independence, be lawful to oppose a just force to him, because we accept control, for the establishment of order. his power doth not extend so far,” Although unrestrained power in one person may
The question, in sbort, turns upon this single bave been the first and most natural recourse of point, respecting the power of the civil magistrate. mankind, from rapine and disorder; yet all restric. is it the end of that office, that one particular pertions of power, made by laws, or participation of son may do what he will without restraint or rasovereignty, are apparent improvements upon wbat ther that society should be made happy and se. began in unlimited power.
cure the answer is very obvious-And it is my
firm opinion that the equal justice of God, and the It would shock humanity, slould I attempt to natural freedom of mankind, must stand or fall togedescribe those barbarous and tragic scenes, which ther. crimason the historic page of this wretched and de When rulers become tyrants, they cease to be testable constitution, where absolute dominion is kings: they can no longer be respected as God's lodged in one person: where one makes the whole, vicegerenis, who violate the laws they were sworn and the whole is nothing. What mouives, what
*The celebrated Mrs. Macaulay. cvents, could bave been able to subdue men, en.
Mrs. Macaulay. dowed with reason, to render themselves the mutel Salus populi suprema lex esto,
to project. The preacher may tell us of passive obe., freely on every object worthy its attention, when chence, that tyrants are scourges in the hands of as the privileges of mankind are thoroughly compre. righteous God to chastise a sinful nation, and are hended, and the rights of distinct societies are ob. to be submitted to like plagues, famine and such (jects of liberal enquiry. The rod of the tyrant no like judgments: such doctrine may serve to mis- longer excites our apprehensions, and to the frown leadill juchging princes into a faise security; but men of the Despot, which made the darker ages trem. are not be harrangued out of their senses; human ble,* we dare oppose demands of right, and appeal nature and self-preservation will eternally arm the to that constitution, which holds even kings in brave and vigilant, against slavery and oppression. fetters.
As a despotic governments is evidently produc. It is easy to project the subversion of a people, live of the most shocking calamities, whatever when men behold them, the ignorant or indolent tends to restrain such inordinate power, though in victims of power; but it is difficult to effect their itself a severe evil, is extremely beneficial to so- ruin, when they are apprised of their just claims, ciety; for where a degrading servitude is the de and are sensibly and seasonably affected with Teslable alternative, who can shudder at the reluc-thoughts for their preservation. God be thanked, tant poignard of a Brutus, the crimsoned axe of a the alarm is gone forth,t the people are universally Cromwell, or the reeking dagger of a Ruvillac. informed of their CHARTER RIGUTS; they esteem
them to be the ark of GOD TO NW-ENGLAND, and like To enjoy life as becomes rational creatures, to possess our souls with pleasure and satisfaciion, hand that shall dare to touch it.
that of old, may it deal destruction to the profane we must be careful to maintain that inestimable blessing, liberty. By liberty I would be understood,
In every state or society of men, personal liberty the happiness of living under laws of our own mak. and security must depend upon the collective power ing, by our personal consent, or that of our repre.
of the whole, acting for the general interest. If san'atives.t
this collective power is not of the whole, the free
dom and interest of the whole is not secured: If Without this, the distinctions among mankind this confluent power acts by a partial delegation, are but different degrees of misery; for as the true estimate of a man's life consists in conducting it
* Celum non animum mutant, qui trans mare currunt.
The citizens of Rome, Sparia, or Lucedemon, at according to his own just sentiment and innocent those blessed periods when they were most eminent inclinations, his being is degraded below that of a for their attachment to liberiy and virtue, could free agent, wbich heaven has made bim, when his than are to be found at this day in America: I will
never exhibit brighter examples of patriotic zeal, affection and passions are no longer governed by not presume to say that the original British spirit the dictates of his own mind, and the interests of has improved by transplanting; but this I dare
affirm, that should Britons stoop toppression, the human society, but by the arbitrary, unrestrained struggles of their Anerican brethren, will be their will of another.
eternal reproach. I thank God we live in an age of rational inquisi. The instituting a committee of grievances and
correspondence by the town of Bosion, has served tion, when the unfettered mind dares to expatiate this valuable purpose: The general infraction of
the rights of all the colonies, mus finally reduce *The ingratitude and curruption of Rome is, the discordant provinces, to a necessary combinfo perhaps, in no instance, more strongly marked than lion for their mutual interest and defence: Some in her treatment of her colonies; by their labors, future congress will be the glorious source of the Sils, and arms, slie bad reached to that summit of salvation of America: The Amplictiones of Greece, Glorious exiliation, as to be like Britai', the won wiio formed the diet or great council of the states, der and dreas of the world; but by fatai experience exhibit an escellent model for the rising Ameriil.ose ruined colonies inculcate this serious lessuli, cans. the ambition of a DE-POT is boundiess; his rapine is #Lord chicf justice Coke observes "hen any jusatiable; the accomplishment of his conquest: new device is nioved in the king's behalf, for aid over his enemies, is but the introduction of slavery, or the like, the commons may answer, iliey dare with her concomitant piagues, to his friends.
not agree without conference with their own ins." The viry idea of r presentative, deputy or trus. The novel device of fleecing the colonies, was tee, includes thai of a constituent, whose interest introduced in a way the constitution knows not they are ordained and appointed to promote and se jof, and crammed down their throats, by measures eure; vr y unappointed, self constituted agent in the equally iniquitous. Britis parliament, has fraudulently and arbitrarily: 'I will not al.:o) the stickiers for the present suri endered iny best interest, without my priviry; measures; by confronting them with more stale or consent; I do therefore bereby protest agains, authorities, if they will permit me the foliowing all suco powers as be shall claimn in my betalt, and shor: but espress declaration of Siriney, which they D:osi sulemnly discard bin my service forever may chew at leisure. No MAN CAN GIVE THAT WAICA See Lock, civil government. Risum teneatis amici.is Ánotuer's.