pect of getting Memel logs some- on champagne and claret from 7ş. to what cheaper than at present, is not 5s, 4d. a-gallon; and to raise those to legislate like statesmen, but like imposed on Cape Madeira to the narrow-minded shopkeepers. same amount, or in other words, to

The same objections apply with enable the rich man to consume his equal strength to the proposed in. luxuries at a cheaper, and compel the crease on the duties on Cape wine. poor one to purchase his necessaries To subject inferior wine at so great at a dearer rate, a distance, and in an infant colony, The duty on raw cottons, calculato nearly the same duty as French ted as likely to produce L.500,000, wines on the other side of the Chan- is equally inexplicable both on prinnel, was to expose the cultivation of ciple and expedience. Professing to that article at the Cape to certain wish to lighten the springs of indusdestruction. The proposed rise from try; to cheapen the raw produce, 28. 8d. to 5s, 6d. a-gallon, would at which enters into and forms the subone blow bave annihilated both the stratum of our manufactures, they growth and the commerce in Cape brought forward a proposal to burwine. No less than L.1,800,000, vested den the article which forms the sta. in these employments on the faith of ple manufacture of England. The the protection of the British Statutes, manufacture of cotton goods has would have been destroyed. For now risen to such an extraordinary what purpose was this great sacri: height, that no less than 227,000,000 fice to be committed, and the pros: pounds of cotton were imported into perity of an infant colony to be nipt the empire in the year 1828, being in the bud? To follow the phantom nearly five times what it was at the of Free Trade, at the expense

of conclusion of the war. The work best interests ; to destroy our own ing up of cotton goods is by far the colonial industry, in order to encour- most important branch of British age that of our hereditary rivals, manufacturing industry; in fact, it

Cape wine, it is said, is of an in- is equal to all our other manufacferior quality-so it is; but is that tures put together. How is the im. any reason for totally extinguishing position of a burden on the staple its growth? It is not so good as cla- of this immense branch of industry ret or champagne ; but is that a suffi- to be defended ? Proceeding on the cient ground for subjeeting it to the principles of free trade, and on the same import duties ? Unless the duty experienced benefit of reducing the bears some proportion to the value of duties on raw silk, by what extraor, the article taxed, it must operate as dinary process did Ministers arrive a prohibition. If wine worth 1s. 6d. at the conclusion, that by raising the a-bottle is subjected to the same duties on raw cotton, the springs of burden as that worth 58., of course that important branch of industry the former will disappear from the would be lightened ? market. If wine raised at the south- By increasing the prime cost of ern extremity of Africa is taxed as the article, an increase is given to heavily as that raised on the Ga- the ultimate price, incomparably ronne, the cultivation must speedily greater than the mere addition of the cease at the distant point.

newly imposed duty. The cost of The motive for this extraordinary production, the original outlay being tax cannot be divined. It certainly increased, the capital expended on would not have the effect of cheapen- the article in all the subsequent ing any kind of wine in the market hands through which it goes, must to double the duties on that pro- be increased also. A larger outlay duced at the Cape. The interests of is required for manufacturing it, for the middling orders evidently re- selling it to the wholesale merchant, quire that cheap wines should be ac- for disposing of it in the retail trade. cessible to limited fortunes: and how Every one of these persons must is this to be done, if the cheapest have his profit on the enlarged adwines now raised are to be elevated vance he is required to make. The in price by the imposition of the prejudicial effect of such an addition same duties as those levied on the to the original outlay has been disfinest wines of French growth? Mi- tinctly proved by the result of the nisters proposed to lower the duties duty on leather malt, and other articles, where the elevation of price by the imposition of a duty on the to the ultimate consumer was always raw material is much greater in the incomparably greater than the tax first class than in the second. The imposed; for this evident reason, difference would hardly have been that all the subsequent hands through perceived in the splendid shawl whom it went, levied an additional which adorns the figure, or the richprofit on their enlarged outlay. The ly-worked stockings which set off same effect must have followed the the ankles of the lady of fashion; increased duty on cotton; and this but it would bave been sensibly felt was proposed by an administration by the artisan when he came to purprofessing to lighten the springs of chase the coarse shirts, moleskin manufacturing industry!

jackets, or dimity petticoats, which It may be added, that the proposed constituted the clothing of himself duty would have pressed with pecu- and his family. liar severity upon the working class- Lastly came the duty on steames, while it would have been com- boats, a tax imposed seemingly for paratively unfelt by their superiors. no other reason but to leave no prinCotton goods have now become an ciple of philosophy unviolated, and absolute necessary to the lower or- no enjoyment of the poor unaffected ders; they appear in the shirts, by fiscal regulations. If there is any stockings, trowsers, and waistcoats, one principle more firmly fixed than of the men; in the gowns, petti- another by, political economy, it is coats, shifts, caps, and stockings, of the incalculable advantage of an exthe women; two-thirds of the ex- tended, cheap, and rapid internal compenditure for clothing of every poor munication. In this particular, the family, is for articles worked out of conclusions of experience are perthis material. The proposed tax fectly in unison with the deductions would necessarily have raised the of reason; and the beneficial effect price of all these articles, unless the of rail-roads, canals, and highways, increasing skill of the manufacturers is universally felt and acknowledged. could have counteracted this effect The wonderful effects of the applicaby a still farther extended applica- tion of steam to navigation were tion of machinery. This could not oniy beginning to develope themhave been done without diminishing selves; whole regions were starting the employment of the operatives into activity under its beneficial inemployed in those departments. In fluence; the remoter provinces of either view, the lower orders must the empire were brought close to have suffered from the proposed the metropolis by its means, and the duty; if the price of cotton goods disadvantages of climate and soil comwas raised, this would at once and pensated, in many extensive districts, universally have abridged their com- by mere proximity to the sea-coast. forts; if not, this could have been In Scotland, in particular, steam, effected only by their diminished boats had proved of extraordinary and employment.

unlooked for utility. The deeply By being imposed on the raw ma- indented coast and numerous islands terial, and not on the manufactured of the western counties were startarticle, in any of its subsequent ing in consequence into life and acstages, the advance of price would tivity. Every man who had the sea in a peculiar and most unequal man- at his door found himself within an ner have pressed on the labouring easy journey of the most opulent disclasses. The cotton articles which tricts; and farm produce, hitherto they consume are those of the coarser useless for want of a market, found fabric, in which the original cost of a rapid and increasing sale. Seventy the article bears a great proportion steam-boats daily passed up and to the subsequent charge of its ma- down the Clyde ; four boats went nufacture. What the higher orders daily to Inverary from Glasgow, a again principally require are the finer town not visited, fifteen years ago, by and more manufactured kinds, where a single public conveyance; cattle the chief part of the price arises were sent every week from Morayfrom the costly processes to which shire to London by water; the farm the original materials are subjected; and garden produce of Argyleshire of course, the enhancement of price was daily brought to Glasgow; and an immense commerce carried on in be wakened by such unlooked-for potatoes from the Mull of Cantire to gratification to a sense of the baseDublin. In the most remote and ness of sensual and the superiority hitherto unfrequented districts of the of intellectual enjoyment. The same West Highlands, the arrival of a Budget which proposed to burden steam-boat every day afforded both these innocent and elevating enjoythe means of communication with ments, rendered it cheaper to chew more civilized quarters, and the op- and smoke tobacco; and this was portunity of disposing of the fruits the system of the partisans of intelof their industry to advantage; and lectual improvement, and the friends under the benignant influence of in- of the poor! creasing intercourse with mankind, Such is the celebrated Whig Budcivilisation was advancing, know- get; now happily extinct, except as ledge extending, and the inveterate a monument of rash and ill-consiindolence of the Celtic character dered legislation, and as a warning giving way to the artificial wants of to future times of what may be anpolished life.

ticipated from the continued influOf most of these immense advan- ence of the same interests which have tages, which Scotland had begun and produced this abortion. Ireland might hope to reap from The explanation of this measure steam-navigation, this country would is to be found in the words with have been deprived by the proposed which Lord Althorpe concluded his duty. The tax of 1s. a-head on all speech introducing it : “ This Budpassengers would have doubled, in get will be liked by the manufacmost cases, in many quadrupled the turers, but not by the fundbolder.” expense of water conveyance. At Ministers were quite aware that they the numerous ferries which intersect were trenching on the interests both the Western Highlands, it would have of the capitalist and of the merchant; operated as a complete and impass- that they were taxing the colonies, able barrier. With so little local and breaking faith with the public knowledge was this tax originally creditor ; but they were willing to imposed, that the same duty was laid incur their displeasure to secure the on a passenger on crossing an incon- favour of the manufacturers. Such siderable ferry, as on a voyage from is the consequence of being governEdinburgh to London, and the total ed by an administration, who rest on produce of the tax estimated at popular favour, and are impelled to L.100,000—whereas it was ascertain sacrifice the best interests of the enied, that, in the Frith of Forth alone, pire to maintain their interest with its amount would be L. 13,000 a-year. ihe populace in the great cities.

It may be added that this was a It is in this view, that the considetax levied peculiarly, and almost ex- ration of the late Budget is chiefly clusively, on the best and most inno- of value. It points to the course of cent enjoyments of the poor. Many policy which has been adopted by a other luxuries degrade the life, and popular, and must be followed up by ruin the character, of the lower or- a reforming ministry. The same ders. Tobacco brutalizes their ha- causes, which, in opposition to prinbits, spirits poison the mind as well ciple, philosophy, and expedience, as weaken the body; but the cheap compelled the cabinet into the protravelling which steam-navigation in- posed measures of finance, must opetroduced produced nothing but be- rate with increased force, when adneficial effects. For the pale and ditional power is given to the popular sickly mechanic or operative work- voice, and greater sway to the maman to escape from the smoke and nufacturing interest in the legislacontagion of cities, and visit the tran- ture. quil and beautiful scenes of the coun- The important and vital fact that try, was an enjoyment to all of the two-thirds of the whole population most innocent, to some of the most of Great Britain are engaged in trade elevating kind. None could be bru- and manufactures, and only one-third talized by visiting Inverary, Loch in the cultivation of the soil,* is deLomond, or Loch Ness; many might cisive on this point. The increasing

• Population Returns, 1821,

preponderance of the manufacturing bas returned all its members not only over the agricultural interest, has in the reforming, but the radical intelong been felt in the legislature; but rest; and that the landed freeholders under the new system of introdu- have almost everywhere returned recing all the householders inhabiting a forming candidates at the late elechouse rented at L.10 a-year and up- tions, are among the most extrawards, it will evidently become over- ordinary incidents of this eventful whelming. What the measures are age. They demonstrate how little which they will force upon govern the march of intellect has added to ment may be judged of by those which the real knowledge of mankind, and were adopted to conciliate their how scanty is the stock of political good-will. Confiscation of the funds, information in the world, notwithunder the name of taxes on transfers standing the incessant discussions of or on equitable adjustment: the with- the newspapers. The fundholders drawing of all protecting duties on fondly imagine that their dividends the produce of the colonies: the sa- will be as regularly paid by a reforma crifice of every other interest, to fur- ed as a constitutional Parliament: nish cheap articles of necessity or the shipping owners, that the interest convenience, to the sovereign multi- of navigation will be as steadily adtude in the towns of the empire, will hered to by the sovereign multitude and must be the future policy of the as by the ancient and stable British government. The landed interest will Government: the colonial propriebe sacrificed by a repeal of the corn tors, that the vast fabric of the empire laws to procure their favour by the will be as securely held together by cheap price of bread; the Canadas the unstable many, as the stable few; will be lost, in the attempt to throw the farmers, that the interests of agriopen the trade in timber; the West culture will be as well attended to Indies in tlie conflagration conse- in the Chapel of St Stephen by the quent on the sudden emancipation delegates of the manufacturers, as of the negroes, or in the losses ari- the representatives of the landed sing from a free trade in sugar; the property. On they go like a flock of East India interest, deprived of the sheep, supporting each other in the exclusive trade to China, will be re- cry for reform, until at length they duced to the doubtful and perilous have returned a Parliament compos sovereignty of a distant continent. sed of such materials, that even a These effects may not all follow at reforming administration tremble for once-considerable periods may the consequences. All this has taken elapse between each successive step; place at the very time that the warnbut their ultimate establishment un- ing fire of revolution was devastating der a reformed parliament is as cer- the European continent; and in the tain as that night succeeds day. lifetime of the very generation who

The facts, that a large proportion had witnessed the church, the coloof the members of the House of nies, the commerce, and the landed Commons who voted against Minis- estates of France, perish in the first ters on the Timber question, sup- gales of their reformed assembly. ported them on Reform ; that the Well might the Chancellor Oxena funds maintain their value notwith- stiern exclaim - Videte quam parva standing the tempest with which they sapientia regitur mundus. are menaced; that the city of London




Next morning, we proceeded to- my companions again; but in requiwards the Spanish headquarters, tal of the disappointment, smashed provided with horses through the the gourd in passing with the stick I kindness of the Captain of the out- held in my hand, when, to my unutpost, and preceded by a guide on an terable surprise, and amidst shouts

He was a moreno, or man of of laughter from our moreno, the colour, who, in place of bestriding head and shoulders of an Indian, his beast, gathered his limbs under with a quantity of sedges tied round him, and sat crosslegged on it like a his neck, and buoyed up by halftailor; so that when you saw the a-dozen dead teal fastened by the two “ end on,” the effect was laugh- legs to his girdle, started up before able enough, the flank and tail of the “ Ave Maria, purisima! you ass appearing to constitute the lower have broken my head, señor.” But part of the man, as if he had been a as the vegetable helmet had saved sort of composite animal, like the his scull, of itself possibly none of ancient satyr. The road traversed à the softest, a small piece of money low swampy country, from which the spliced the feud between us; and as rapk moisture arose in a hot palpable he fitted his pate with another calamist, and crossed several shallow bash, preparatory to resuming his lagoons, from two to six feet deep cruise, he joined in our merriment, of tepid, muddy, brackish water, although from a different cause.. some of them half a mile broad, and " What can these English simpletons swarming with wild waterfowl. On see so very comical in a poor Indian these occasions, our friend the Satyr catching wild-ducks ?” was signalled to make sail ahead on Shortly after, we entered a forest bis donkey to pilot us; and as the of magnificent trees, whose sombre water deepened, he would betake shade, on first passing from the inhimself to swimming in its wake, tolerable glare of the sun; seemed holding on by the tail, and shouting, absolute darkness. The branches Cuidado Burrico, Cuidado que no were alive with innumerable tropite ahogas.

cal birds and insects, and were laced While passing through the largest together by a thick tracery of withes, of these, we noticed several cala- along which a guana would occa. bashes about pistol-shot on our right; sionally dart, coming nearest of all and as we fancied one of them bob- the reptiles I had seen to the shape bed now and then, it struck me they of the fabled dragon. might be Indian fishing-floats. To But how different from the clean satisfy my curiosity, I hauled my stems, and beautiful green sward of wind, and leaving the track we were our English woods! Here, you were on, swam my horse towards the confined to a quagmire by imper. group. The two first that I lifted vious underwood of prickly pear, penhad nothing attached to them, but guin, and speargrass; and when we proved to be what I thought they rode under the drooping branches of were, merely empty gourds floating the trees, that the leaves might brush before the wind; but when I tried away the halo of musquitoes, flying to seize the largest, it eluded my ants, and other winged plagues that grasp in a most incomprehensible buzzed about our temples, we found, manner, and slid away astern of me to our dismay, that we had made with a curious hollow gabbling, sort bad worse by the introduction of a of noise, whereupon my palfrey whole colony of garapatos, or woodsnorted and reared, and nearly cap- ticks, into our eyebrows and hair. sized me over his bows. What a At length we reached the headquara noble fish, thought I, as I tacked in ters at Torrecilla, and were well rechase, but my Bucephalus refused ceived by the Spanish commanderto face it. I therefore bore up to join in-chief, a tall, good-looking, soldiera

See “ A Scene on the Costa Firme," in Number for January last,

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