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THE UNIVERSITIES.-V. Latitude. Longitude.
CAMBRIDGE.-III. In our last article upon this University, we alluded to the fact 31° 23'N. 31° 45 E. that the Senate were about to consider the advisability of admit10 23 S. 40 29 ting students to the University who are not members of colleges. 9N
The fact that this is intended to diminish the cost of University
education makes it necessary that we should notice it rather 28W.
more fully. 35
The scheme which is under consideration provides for the ap7 8E.
pointment of a board which.shall stand to non-collegiate students 53W.
3 E: in the same relation as the college now stands to its own members 8 30 12 32W. -i.e., it shall maintain order amongst them, and see that they are 18 34 S. 12 0 E. duly informed as to all that is required of them; to manage all 32 46 N. 59W. accounts of the fees received, and present them in due time for
53 S. 22 17 E. admission to degrees. In reference to the students themselves, 37N. 37
the scheme provides that all laws and regulations at present in 26W.
force with regard to collegiate students shall apply to the 11 53 51 22 E.
non-collegiate. They shall be entitled to be matriculated, 23 10 35
examined, and admitted to degrees in exactly the same way as 33
10 50 E. others, the officers of the above-mentioned board taking the 10 s. 44 27 place of the prælectors and tutors of the colleges. They will have 15 34 N. 32 31 to reside in lodgings, licensed by the present lodging-honse 14 53
15W. syndicate, and be under the government of the present University 3
38 E. rules so far as they apply to lodging-houses. The fee on matri30 S. 49 E. culation will be fifteen shillings. At the commencement of 27 19
every term, each student will pay to the above board the sum 32 50 N 3 30 S.
of thirty-five shillings. Other University fees will remain the 033
same as for ordinary members of colleges. 16 7 N. 30W.
This scheme is to come into operation so soon as the necessary 45 13 E. alterations shall, by consent of the Crown, have been made in 45 7 32W. the University statutes, and it is to be considered experimental 15 37
39 27 E. until the year 1873, when the University will confirm or abolish 36 48
the present arrangements. 17 10 53W.
It is obvious that this scheme will reduce the expense of 3 E. 16 32W.
living at Cambridge to something very little more than that in 31 30
London or elsewhere. But it must be remembered that no pro46
46 E. vision for education is included in the above payments. The
52w. scheme is not intended to include this, but to enable poor 32 40 S. 28 25 E. students, and students of special subjects, to curtail their social 25 49 N. 14 12
expenses as much as they please. As such, the scheme is 2 S.
deserving of every commendation. 54
We pass now from the University proper to the influence 28 46 N.
which it extends throughout the country by means of its local
OW. 10 40
examinations, both for boys and girls. They are intended chiefly 36 S. 13 E. for the advantage of the middle-class schools, for whom there 35 40 N.
exists no organised system of inspection, such as the Priry 4 27
Council provide for schools of a lower class; nor any recognized 54 S. 13 7 E. criterion of merit, such as the universities supply for schools of 29
a higher class. They enable schoolmasters to send in for 7 N.
15 55W. examination either whole classes or chosen representatives, and, 17 45 S.
by attracting to various centres the youth from all parts of 34
England, they provide a largeness of competition which makes 31
them a valuable test of excellence, and a powerful stimulus to 23 N.
5 12 E. The syndicate appointed for the purpose undertake to condact
46W. an examination at any place where a local committee, formed for 32
the purpose, will guarantee at least twenty-five candidates. If 43
2 girls are to be examined as well as boys, it is necessary that 6 12 s.
there should be a committee of ladies, one of whom will under27 10 N. 31
take the office of local secretary. 12 30 53 45
This committee will have to see to the proper accommodation
of all students not resident in the place of examination; to pro19 6 37 23 E. vide a suitable room for the examination, separate from that in 29 57
32 which the boys are examined ; and to send a responsible repre
sentative to be present during the time of examination. 18 46 S. 47
The University fee, whether for boys or girls, is £1 per 45 N.
5 47W. candidate, and the local committee have the power to charge an 12 s. 33 26 E.
additional fee to cover their own expenses. After each examina32 N. 5 22W. 25 38
tion, the students who pass with credit, or satisfy the examiners, 6W.
are entitled to receive certificates to that effect, which also 3 E. specify the subjects in which the student has been examined.
The names are also published in three alphabetical honear
33w. classes, and a list appended of those who merely pass. In 28 44 S. 16 23 E. determining the classes, account is taken of every part of the 22 N.
examination, provided that in that part the student has obtained 32 4S S. 27
more than a certain fixed minimum of marks. Regard is had throughout to the handwriting and spelling.
The examinations themselves, which are the same for boys | trigonometry, conio sections, elementary statics, mechanics, and girls, are divided into two divisions, one for senior students, hydrostatics, and astronomy. between the ages of twelve and seventeen, the other for junior 6. Chemistry, embracing general principles of chemical students, between the ages of twelve and fifteen.
science, and the experimental laws of heat, magnetism, and EXAMINATION OF JUNIOR STUDENTS.
7. Zoology, Botany, or Geology, no student being examined in The examination of junior students is divided into three
more than one of these subjects. parts:
8. Drawing from the flat, from models, and in perspective. Part I.
9. Music, embracing the history and principles of the art. This is preliminary, and embraces reading aloud, writing from Of these nine sections, no one will be examined in more than ictation, English grammar, arithmetic, the geography of the five. Every one must take in 1, unless, as above, it be objected i nited Kingdom, France, Europe, and North America ; and the to; and every student must satisfy the examiners in three of cutlines of English history sinco the Conquest. In these every the first seven, or in two of the first seven and one of the last student must satisfy the examiners.
two. A fair knowledge of one of the subjects comprised in each Part II.
section will enable the student to pass in that section.
Papers relating to the examinations may be obtained at This comprises ten sections, and every student must satisfy Messrs. Rivington's, the publishers, and any further information the examiners in at least two of these; but no ono will be required will be given by the secretary of the Local Examinacamined in more than six.
tion Syndicate at Cambridge. 1. Religious Knowlelge.—Part of the historical Scriptures of the Old Testament, and one New Testament subject; tho offered by such examinations as those, so extensive in the sub
It is scarcely necessary for us to point out the advantages Church Catechism, and Whately's "Introductory Lessons on
jects which they embrace, yet giving every prominence to select Christian Evidences.” This section must be taken in by every studont, unless the would be well for all who are interested in the training of the
reading. We close our account of them by suggesting that it parents or guardians object.
rising generation, to test the knowledge of those in their charge 2. English.—This embraces a piece of original composition 2 paper on a chosen portion of English history; and another on by requiring them to pass one of these examinations beforo conohrsical, political, and commercial geography, with especial sidering their education complete. reference to Great Britain and her dependencies. 3. Latin.-Papers on two chosen Latin books, involving geo
COMPARATIVE ANATOMY.-XVII. graphical and historical allusions, grammar and parsing ; also une passage from some Latin author, not announced beforehand,
PTEROPODA-CEPHALOPODA, a passage of English, with Latin words supplied for translation into Latin.
PERHAPS there is no class of animals less likely to come under 4. Greek.—Corresponding papers to those in Latin, omitting the notice of tho reader than those which belong to this class. the composition.
This is not because they are few in number, for they exist in 5. French,
such countless numbers in the ocean that, though they are all of 6. German.
small size, they discolour large tracts of its waters; clouding it In these the papers will correspond to those in Latin.
just as the countless flakes of the snow-fall make the heavens 7. Pure Mathematics.-Euclid I.–VI.; algebra as far as
look turbid. Ships may sail for many hours through these proportion; plane trignometry to the solution of triangles, swarming myriads, and it is supposed that they form a large logarithms, and menguration.
part of the diet of the huge whales which, rushing through the 8. Elementary Mechanics, embracing the parallelogram of throng with open mouth, strain out the little creatures from the forces, the centre of gravity, and the mechanical powers. waters by the aid of the whalebone fringes of their jaws, and so
9. Elementary Chemistry and the laws of chemical combination, manage to satisfy an appetite which must be as exacting as their anbstances being given for testing.
bulk is large. The reason that we see so little of these multi10. (a) Elementary Zoology, embracing the classification of tadinous creatures is that they are strictly oceanic in their habits animals and the uses of animal products.
—that is, they live in mid-ocean, and seldom comencar any shores. () Botany.-The elassification of plants and their geo- Moreover, they seem to be more or less nocturnal in their habits, graphical distribution, specimens being given for description.
retiring into the depths of the sea during the heat of mid-day, No student will be examined in both (a) and (b).
and coming to the surface in the evening. They have, however, Amongst the abovo sections two, as we have said, aro com
been seen, even during the day, sporting about in the neighbour: palsory. These two must not be both 3 and 4, or both 5 and hood of those great masses of ocean-weed called sargassum, 6, or both 7 and 8, or both 9 and 10.
which float in the middlo of the Atlantic, occupying the centre Part III.
of that vast revolving current, part of which is called the Gulf
Stream. This is additional and voluntary. Students may offer them. selves for examination in geometrical drawing and perspectivo; they derive their name, is that they possess two wide expansions
The distinguishing character of these animals, from which also in drawing from the flat and from models; and in music.
of the mantle, which are very muscular, stretching away on EXAMINATION OF SENIOR STUDENTS.
either side from the back of the neck. These flaps have been
called wings, and the animals themselves butterflies of the sea; Part I.
those who have observed their motions say that it is so brisk This is preliminary, and the subjects are the same as those in and constant that the simile is not an unnatural one. the junior examination, a more extended knowledge of them
There are two divisions of the Pteropoda, in ono of which being required.
there is no shell, of which Clio Borealis, a little creature about Part II.
half an inch long, may be taken as the type ; while the other 1. Religious Knowledge.--Subjects as above, with the addition consists of animals which have shells, and of these Hyalea may of the Book of Common Prayer, and Paley's " Horw Paulinæ ;” | be taken as a good example. In Hyalea tho shell is a pretty also, in the New Testament subject, credit will be given for a object, reminding one of a watch-pocket such as is hung to a knowledge of the original Greek.
bod. It is all in one piece, but cut down the sides by such deep 2. English.—Subjects as above, with the addition of a play of slits that it may be said to consist of two portions, one of which Shakespeare, the outlines of political economy, and a short is fint, or nearly so, and the other is bulging. The animal rests
in this little inflexible pocket, and can retract itself completely 3. Intin and Greek as above, including one piece of Latin within the cavity; but ordinarily, when not alarmed, it thrusts composition.
its head and wings out of the top, and protrudes two folds of 4. French and German as aboro, with a piece of composition its thin mantlo through the side slits, and bends them round the
shell, both before and behind, so as to make their edges meet. 5. Pure and Arrlied Mathematics, embracing Euclid, algebra, The head is often not very distinct, and although some of these
in both languages.
creatures have very elaborate organs for seizing and holding | powers of perception and locomotion, is the development of a prey, they are so minute as to require high powers of tho | large concentrated brain, enclosed in some cases in a cartimicroscope to detect thom at all. The organs of sense are but laginous box, from which prolongations are extended to shield ill-developed. Thus, though they certainly occupy a position and support the sense-capsules (ears and eyes), and also to supbetween the Gasteropoda and Cephalopoda, they seem in some port the organs of motion. This cartilage seems to be the true respects inferior to both. The mass of internal organs of the representative or homologue of the internal skeleton of the veranimal occupies a much smaller space than the interior of the tebrates, and in this class it becomes developed from the merest shell. They are carnivorous, feeding on small animals. The rudiment until it entirely supplants the shell, which we find, not mouth leads, in hyalea, into a narrow throat, and this into a only in this class, but in the other chasses of the Mollusca, play. round stomach. The short intestine opens into the cavity ing the part, not merely of a protection, but also a fulerur between the mantle walls. They are opistho branchiate—that fixed hard part, from which muscles could move the soft parts is, their gills are situated behind the heart. The heart is, as in of the body. However much we might wish it otherwise, Fe all moliuscs, systemic, and receives blood from the gills, and must, therefore, consider ourselves more nearly allied to the gross, propels it to the body. The liver is large, and there is below it dull, and sluggish Mollusca, than to the active and graceful an organ supposed to perform the functions of a kidney. articulates ; but though the gap in the series which cuts off the
The nervous system consists of a central mass, composed of vertebrates from the invertebrates is doubtless the most decided two ganglia, united by a band which passes under the throat, and and definite which is found in the whole animal kingdom, fet this sends off nerves to the wings and mantle. In Clio Borealis the cephalopods furnish a link which connects us with the thero are four large ganglia and two small onos in the same Mollusca, while there is no such link between the articulates and position. This creature has a bi-lobed hood, which can cover all the branch to which we belong. the head, while the tentacles run through it, and so warn the The Cephalopoda are so called because the integument of the animal, by the sense of touch, of any external object; and then, body is drawn out round the mouth into long, tapering, flexible if this object be prey of any kind, it throws back its hood and thongs, which are the instruments which have to serve, not only exposes six organs, placed three on each side of the mouth, as feelers and arms, but also as legs. In this latter capacity which are studded over with an immense number of tubes, each they are used when the animal makes its way over solid ground, of which can protrude from its end twenty organs which can act and, from their position, the animal must of course walk upon its as suckers, and so their minute victims are secured and passed to head, and hence the name head-footed, or head walkers. This the triangular mouth, which is furnished with small, singularly. mode of progression is, however, seldom resorted to, as the shaped jaws. In Clio Borealis there are two round dark spots at creatures are oceanic rather than terrestrial, and made for the back of the hood to which nerves run, and these were once swimming rather than walking. They only approach the supposed to be eyes; but as little stones have been found in shore to lay their eggs, but swim the sea in order to procure these organs, they are now supposed to be ears. The sexes are prey. Not unfrequently, however, they have a retreat in the united in each individual.
dark cranny of some submarine rock, in the neighbourhood of which the refuse of their prey is seen to accumulate.
The cephalopods are divided into two great divisions, called, This last and highest class of the Mollusca differs from the according to the number of their gills, Tetrabranchiata and rest in containing animals with far higher powers of locomotion Dibranchiata; or, according to the number of their arme, and perception than any of the others. The different species Tentaculifera and Acetabulifera. To the former belongs the are, it is true, often very uncouth and grotesque in appearance, pearly nautilus, whose shells are so commonly seen in naturalists' but probably the grotesqueness is due to the fact that they shops, but which belong to at most only two species of animals
. seldom come under our notice. Every creature which we have all the rest of this once numerously represented sub-class are never observed before, and which differs in external form from fossil. The ammonites of the secondary period all give indieathose with which we have been previously acquainted, always tions that they belong to this division, and their variety of form creates the impression of outlandishness, however well it may be and number—the number of individuals—which lived during that adapted to its own conditions of life. If we were to account period is truly amazing. It is curious that, while all the amstrange and grotesque those forms which differ most from the monites have died out, the nautilus, which still exists, represents type upon which most creatures are formed, both man and the a genus which lived in the primary ages, long before the former horse would be thought very strange creatures. When, however, came into existence. It is probable that no other genus, and we find organs whose uses we know well, and with whose out- certainly none so high in the animal scale, has had so prolonged ward form the eye is familiarised, blended with other organs an existence on our planet. Since the Nautilus pompilius and which have never before come under our notice, no doubt the the Nautilus umbilicatus are the only two existing species, we are impression of uncouthness is strongest. Thus, the fact that a compelled to interpret the structure of all the soft organe cattle-fish has large eyes on each side of its head very much like possessed by this class by an examination of these species only, our own, and also a beak like that of a parrot, united with a and even this examination is difficult to accomplish ; for though body like a leathern bag, from the mouth of which stretch long the shells of these creatures are comparatively numerons
, and arms studded with sucking cups, makes this creature not only are found washed up at the sea margin, the animals are oceanic appear singular, but even disgusting to some.
and very wary, so that they can only be captured on rare In the higher examples of Articulata we find that as they occasions. In fact, we are dependent upon the
investigations of become more organised and complicated in structure, and better two anatomists only, Mr. Owen and M. Valenciennes, for 8 suited to the accomplishment of the noble vital functions, so description of the nautilus. do they tend to differ from all other creatures in the other The pearly nautilus has a shell rolled up in a spire, whose branches of the animal kingdom. We may, porhaps, assumo whorls are all in one plane-that is, the outer circles are wound that the branch Vertebrata contains the highest of all animals; evenly round the inner ones, as a piece of flat tape is wound but in proportion as insects become perfected, so far do they upon itself. This method of rendering the shell compact is very differ from vertebrates. Though the functions be the same, thogoneral throughout the class (though not absolutely universall; methods by which they are performed differ utterly. Tho and serves to distinguish the shells of Cephalopoda from those of faculties of perception and locomotion are some of the highest the Gasteropoda, which are never wonnd evenly round the central animal powers, and these are possessed in quite as large measuro portion, but always to one side of the plane, in which the per by the dragon-Ay as by man or the dog ; but the
instruments by ceeding whorls lie just in the same manner as the string of which the former moves and sees are not only quite different a peg-top is wound around it. This shell is divided into * from those employed by the latter, but they are the more number of chambers, all of which communicate with each other different, as manifested throughout the class Insecta, as they by a little tubular opening, situated in the centre of each perse become more perfect. become more highly organised they become more like the are lined with live membrane proceeding from the animal, all Vertebrata, and most of all like them in those organs which the essential parts of that animal are contained in its bag-liker minister to the higher functions, for which the sub-Kingdom is short, cylindrical body, which is lodged in the last large chamber resemble that of a vertebrate, but, associated with the greater secretos more shell from its mantie, thus extending the mouth
of the last chamber, and then periodically builds up a wall from which the water flows, after being received through some behind it by the secretion from the hind part of the body. In slits in the sides, into the chamber in which the gills are lodged, the nautilus the edges of the partition between the two chambers is split down its whole length. This funnel is situated on the are plain, but in the ammonites these edges are so folded as to opposite side of the head to the hood, so as to occupy the outer present very complicated and beautiful patterns when viewed | side of the shell mouth. The mouth has two jaws, which are of
16 PTEROPODA :-I., 1. SIELLS OF HYALEA. II. ANIMAL IN ITS SHELL (DIACRIA). III. HYALEA COMPLANATA, DRAWN AS THOUGH IT WERE
TRANSPARENT, TO SHOW THE VISCERA, ETC. CEPHALOPODA :-IV. LOLIGO, A DECAPOD ACETABULIFEROUS GENUS. V. OCTOPUS VULGARIS, THE POULPE OPENED TO SHOW THE ARRANGEMENT OF THE ORGANS.
VI. SUCKER FROM THE ARM OF A SEPIA. VI'. THE SAME IN SECTION, TO SHOW THE PISTON AND THE MUSCLES WHICH RETRACT IT.
VII. SIDE VIEW OF THE GANGLIONIC RING OR CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM OP SEPIA. VIII. SIDE VIEW OF AN IMPERFECT AMMONITE, SHOWING THE NOTCHED SUTURE.
IX. SIDE VIEW OF SAME. X. RESTORED BELEMNITE AND ITS SHELL. Refs. to Nos. in Figs.—III. 1, 1, fins or wings; 2, 2, mantle which lines and also overlaps the shell; 3, mouth ; 4, stomach ; 5, intestine ;
6, liver; 7, ventricle of heart"; 8, auricle of ditto; 9, ascending vessel which gives branches to the fins ; 10, gills; 11, ganglion, giving nerves to fins and mantle. V. 1,1,1, 1, roots of the arms, which are cut short; 2,2, mantle thrown back ; 3, funnel, or locomotivo pipe; 4, buccal mass ; 5, crop; 6, stomach ; 7, blind sack opening into the stomach ; 8, intestine ; 9, arms; 10, 10', auricles; 11, ventricle ; 12, gill heart (there are two of these, but the left is concealed); 13, 13, venæ cavæ-veins leading direct to the branchial hearts ; 14, spongy masses round venæ cave, supposed to be kidneys ; 15, ovary; 16, 16', oviduct; 17, ascending aorta, or main trupk. VII. 1, supra-msophageal ganglion ; 2, sub-csophageal ganglion (anterior); 3, ditto (posterior); 4, 5, upper and under mouth ganglia ; 6, nerves in arms ; 7, ditto to mantle; 8, ditto to eye ; 9, buccal mass; 10, throat.
from the outside. The head of the nautilus is but little distinct | a shelly structure, and this is surrounded by a multitude of from the body, and from its apper side the mantle is developed feelers, all of which can be retracted into sheaths. These into two folds. One of these adheres to the shell, and the other animals have four gills
instead of two, and they have no ink iş puokered into a kind of hood, which falls as a kind of door to bag; otherwise, their internal structure is not unlike the other close the opening of the shell when the animal retires within it. Class. This thickened
part is also used to crawl upon. The funnel, The Dibranchiate cephalopods are of higher organism thon
the nautilus. They have been called Acetabulifera, because of is a peculiar organ situated in the recesses of the body, the duct certain curious appendages to their arms. Their arms are not from which is conveyed up and opens behind the funnel. The short, numerous, and retractile within sheaths, as those of the secretion is under the control of the animal, and when formed it nautilus are,
but of definite number (eight or ten), long, and on thickens and obscures the water by a copious discharge. It is their inner sides—that is, towards the mouth-they are studded said that the Chinese made ink from this secretion, and it is with a single or double row of acetabule. The word acetabulum still used as a pigment. is the ancient name given to a vinegar-cruet, and was first The whole of the Cephalopoda, both recent and extinct, may applied anatomically to the hollow in the pelvis into which the be classified thus :head of the thigh-bone of man is received. Since then it has TETRABRANCHIATA.-Eyes stalked, jaws shelly, and body always been applied to any cup-like organ which has a deeper attached to the shell by a muscle; gills, four. depression in the centre of the cup. These cups are sometimes Family 1.- Ammonitidæ : Shell of many chambers; that cod. stalked, and sometimes set directly to the arms. The cup is oftaining the body elongated, the aperture guarded by processes, & cartilaginous consistence, while in the pit thero is a leathery and closed by an operculum ; suturos angulated, and siphuncle piston, which can be retracted by proper muscles after the external (or dorsal). round edge of the cup has been applied to any object. When Family 2.-Orthoceratidæ : Shell with a small the piston is retracted it of course creates a vacuum in the cup, aperture; siphuncle complicated. and as there are many hundreds of these cups on the arms Family 3.- Nautilidæ : Sutures simple; siphuncle contral. of the animal, it can lay a very firm hold on its prey, and drag DIBRANCHIATA.-Eyes sessile; jaws horny; two gills; an it with great force towards its beak-like mouth. Besides tho ink-bag. cnp-like discs, or suckers, the arms of some of the cephalopods Tribe I.-OCTOPODA: Eight arms; cyes fixed. are furnished with horny hooks, which assist in retaining tho Family 1.-Argonautidæ : Dorsal arms webbed; female prey. Unlike the nautilus, the jaws of the atopus are horny with a shell. and sharp, like the bill of a parrot, only the lower jaw protrudes Family 2.-Octopodido : Arms webbed between the roots. beyond the upper one.
Tribe II.-DECAPODA: Eyes movable ; body finned. The shell of these creatures is far less developed than in the Family 3.-Teuthidæ : Fins nearly at the end of body. other division of this class. For the most part, it is not apparent Family 4.—Belemnitidæ : Shell represented by a peni, at all on the outside, but lios loose in the muscular skin of the terminating in a chambered cono; siphuncle on the ventral back, which it supports, and thus provides that the animal can side. be thrust along by the working of the siphon or by tho fins. In Family 5.-Sepiadæ : Calcareous gladius ; elongated tenthe paper nautilus, however (Argonauta argo), there is a beautiful tacles. external shell, which is not divided into chambers. This shell, Family 6.-Spirulidæ : Discordal, pearly, many-chambered though it lodges tho bag-like body, has no sort of likeness in shell, with ventral siphuncle. form to the shape of the body. Thus, when it was naturally supposed that the shell was secreted, as in the case of the other Mollusca, by the mantle, or investment of the body, LESSONS IN CHEMISTRY.-XXVI. naturalists could not imagine how so beautiful a structure was
GOLD-PLATINUM. moulded on so uncoutlı a form. It has since been ascertained that the shell is formed by two of the arms, which have a large membranous expansion fitted to secrete such a shell. Before
SIMBOL, Au-COMBINING WEIGHT, 196-5—SPECIFIO GRAVITY, 19-3. the office of these arms was known, they gave rise in their turn This, the most valued of the metals, is always found in a native to false conjectures, for it was then thought that this creature state, frequently alloyed with small quantities of silver, copper, sat in its shell as in a boat, and, lifting the webbed arms above and some of the rarer metals. Generally its matrix is quartz the surface of the ocean, was driven along as a ship by its sails. rock, but by aqueous action this rock becomes degraded into In the other octopods there is no representative of a shell, either sand, and the gold is carried down to the river-bed. From this external or internal. In some of the decapods it is horny, and source it was chiefly obtained before the discovery of the in the shape of a pen. In others it is calcareous and thick, but Californian and Australian gold-fields. It is separated from the nevertheless it is very light, being quite porous, and made up of sand by " washing”—that is, the sand, largely mixed with very thin plates supported by little pillars. This is the case in water, is allowed to run from one "cradle" to another, the light the pounce-bone of the sepia. In others, again, as in spirula, sand being thus washed away, and the heavy particles of gold the shell, though internal, is chambered, and is supposed, as in remaining. In California and Australia the metal is found in the case of the chambered shell of the nautilus, to contain air, lumps—"nuggets ”—which have every appearance of having which lightens the body and can be compressed when the animal been fused; or it is extricated from the quartz. The rock is wishes to sink. A number of curious fossils, called belemnites, crushed, and the gold separated by “washing." The process of on account of their resemblance to the head of a dart, have been amalgamation has also been resorted to. The crushed quartz is identified as the prolongations of these internal chambered mixed with mercury, which takes up the gold. The metals are shells, and as these have been sometimes found associated with afterwards separated by distilling off the mercury. the hooks and ink-bag found in the cuttle-fish, there can be little Gold is one of the heaviest of the metals, being only inferior doubt about the identification being genuine. The relation of to iridium and platinum. It is very malleable, being capable of the shell to the extinct animal is shown in the engraving. The being beaten out so thin as to allow green funnel or siphon of the Dibranchiata is entire, and not split through it. along its under side. It leads into a gill-chamber, into which It is very soft. Bracelets of pure gold can be twisted round also the ova and fæces are discharged. The buccal mass is the arm. It melts at 1100. Cent. globular and large. The tongue bears teeth directed backward, No simple acid, except selenic, will dissolve it; but it is acted but is in part naked, and seems like an organ of taste. The on by any mixture which liberates chlorine. Such a mirtare narrow throat leads into a globular stomach or crop. Into the is “aqua regia,” which is composed of 1 of nitric and 4 of stomach a large blind sack enters, and the intestine is short, as hydrochloric acid. The result of this action is auric tri-chloride is usually the case with carnivorous animals, as these are. The (Aucl,). circulatory system is peculiar in being almost a closed circuit, From this salt pure gold may be obtained by precipitating and in having, not only a heart distributing the blood to the the metal from its solution by ferrous sulphate, according to system, after being aërated at the gills, but also in having two this equation :-distinct hearts driving the blood to the gills. The blood is con.
3FeSO, + AuCl, = FeCl, + Fe,350, + Au. veyed to these branchial hearts through two large venous canals, The gold falls as a brown powder, which is purple to trans. whose walls have a spongy texture. These large veins are sup- mitted light. Oxalic acid and the chloride of antimony have a posed to excrete from the blood, by means of the spongy walls, like effect to ferrous sulphate. the ammoniacal liquid equivalent to the urine, and since the Gilding is effected by causing gold-leaf to adhere to the str. vessels lie in the water introduced through the funnel and gill. chambers, of course this could become a means of getting rid of matters no longer useful from the nutritive stream. The ink-bag | shell.
* By siphuncle is meant tho tube connecting the chambers of the