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MEMOIR OF RICHARD GOUGH, The gift was so acceptable to the king, Esq. OF ENFIELD.

that an offer of knighthood was made to [To the account of his Family, which Mr. Mr. Gough; but this loyal subject, having Gough himself communicated to Mr.

no other view than to serve his sovercign, StebbingShaw, for the History of Stafford- declined this honour, which was afterwards shire, we are in part indebted for the ma- conferred on his grandson, llenry of Perterials of this little Memoir. The re. ryhall, when he was introduced at the court mainder has been communicated by a 'of Charles II: and had mention made of literary friend.)

the loyalty of his ancestors. THE family from which Mr. Gough sumed these services were not forgotten

descended, the Gouglis of Wales, in the reign of Queen Anne, as Sir extend their line no further back than the Henry obtained for two of his sons, time of Henry IV. though others of the wbile very young, the places of page to name, and connected with the family, oc- the Queen and Duke of Gloucester. cur as early as the reign of Henry I. Mr. Gough's father was Harry Gough,

Sir Matthew Gough, with whose father, Esq. fifth son of Sir Harry Gough, of PerInnerth or John, the pedigree begins, ha- ry-hall, and was born April 2, 1681. ving passed the prime of his life in the When only eleven years of


he went French wars of Henry V. and VI. finished with Sir Richard Gough, his uncle, to it in Cade's rebellion, fighting on the part China, kept all his accounts, and was of the citizens, in July 1450, at the battle called by the Chinese Ami whang, or the of London-bridge. Nor is this the only in- white-haired boy. In 1707 he commanded stance where Mr. Gough's ancestors were the ship. Streatham, in which he contihighly distinguished for their loyalty. nued eight years, and with equal ability

The unfortunate Charles I. during bis and integrity acquired a decent competroubles, stopt at Wolverhampton, where tency, the result of many hardships and he was entertained by Madam St. Andrew, voyages in the service of the East India who was either sister or aunt to Mr. Company, to which his whole life was deHenryGough, and that gentleman ventur- voted while he presided among their died to accommodate their Royal Highnes- rectors, being elected one in 1731, if not ses Charles Prince of Wales and James

From 1734 to his death, which Duke of York. An antient tenement still happened July 13, 1751, he represented remains at Wolverhampton, where these in parliament the borough of Bramber, in princely guests resided. A subscription Sussex, and enjoyed the confidence of Sir being set on foot to aid the exigencies of Robert Walpole : whose measures he so the royal cause, the inhabitants cheerfully firmly supported, as not only to hurt his contributed accordiug to their ability; but health by attendance on the long and late the most ample supply was expected from debates during the opposition to that miMr. Gough, whose loyalty was as eminent nister, but was often known to attend the as his fortune was superior, when, to the house with a fit of the gout coming on. great surprise and disappointinent of every IIis son Richard, the subject of our meone, he refused any assistance, though moir, wa born October 21, 1735, in a strongly urged by the king's commissione large house in Winchester-street, London, ers, who retired in disgust and chagrin. on a site peculiarly calculated for the birth When night approached, putting on his of an antiquary, that of the monastery of hat and cloak, Mr. Gough went secretly Augustine-friars, founded by Humphrey de and solicited a private audience of his ma- Bohun, Earl of Hereford and Essex, in jesty. This appearing an extraordinary 1253. At the time of the dissolution, the request, the dangerous circumstances of house, cloister and garden of the Augisthe times considered, the lord in waiting times were granted by the crown to Wil. wished to know the object of the request, liam Lord St. John, afterwards Marquis of with an offer to coninunicate it to the Winchester, who built a magnificent house king. Mr. Gough persisted in rejecting upon the very spot, part of which remains, this offer, and much interogation obtained the rest is occupied by later dwellings, and admission to the royal presence. He then among them stands the house alluded to. drew from his cloak a purse, containing a Mr. Gough's parents were dissenters, large sum of money, and presenting it with and their son received the first rudiments due respect, said, “ May it please your of Latin at home, under the tuition of a majesty to accept this; it is all the cash! Mr. Barnewitz, a Courlander, who taught have by me, or I would have brought more.” at the same time the sons of several emi



nent merchants in the city; on his death whether in print or manuscript. This work Mr. Gough was committed to the instruc- was in proved in two volumes of the same tion of the Rev. Roger Pickering, one of size, 1780, and has been since auginented the most learned, most imprudent, and to a third, the progress of which through most illtreated of the dissenting ministers the press was interrupted by the fire at of his time. On his death, May 18, 1755, Mr. Nichols's. Mr. Gough finished his Greek studies un- The year before, February 26, 1767, he der Mr. Samuel Dyer, the friend and li- was elected a fellow of the Society of Anterary contemporary of Johnson. tiquaries, and drew up their History pre

After his father's death, in July 1752, fixed to the first volume of the Archæolohe was admitted fellow-commoner of Be- gia, in 1770. In 1771, by the partiality net College, Cambridge, where his relac of the president, Dr. Milles, Dean of Extions, Sir Henry Gough and his brother eter, he was, on the death of Dr. GreJobin, bad before studied under Dr. Masa gory Sharpe, master of the Temple, nomia son, afterwarıls Bishop of Chichester and nated Director, which office he held till Ely. Benet bad peculiar attractions for December 12, 1797, when, for reasons a mind like Mr. Gouyla's; it had not only which the society can best explain, he trained the great Parker to revivetbestudy quitted it altogether. He was chosen of antiquity, and received from him a rich FR S. 1775, but quitted that society ira donation of curious and ancient manu- 1795. The publication of the Archæoscripts; but had educated Stukeley, to logia he superintended for many years; trace our antiquities to their reinotest ori- and in the different volumes, till 1796, are gin. The college tutor in 1752 was Dr. various articles drawn up or cominunicaJohn Barnardiston, afterwards master. ter by him; his last paper we believe was His private tutor was Mr. Jolin Coit, fel- rcail at the Society of Antiquaries, Janulow of the house, who died at his Rectory ary 26, 1792, “On the Analogy between of Broxted, Essex, in 1781. Under the certain ancient Monuments," and pubprivate tuition of the three excellent scho- lished in the eleventh volume of the Ar. Jars beforementioned, he early inbibert a chæologia, 1794. Besides which, the dif. taste for classical literature ; and it is not ferent comununications in the two latter to be wondered that his connexion with a volumes of the society's Vctusta Monica, college, eminent for producing a succes- menta," to which his signatures are annexa, sinn of British antiquaries, inspired him cui, prove hiin to have been for years the with a strong propensity to the study of our most useful and laborious member it could national antiquities. llere was first plan. boast. One of the principal articles ned the British Topography, and hence, in in the last volume, 1796, is Mr. Gough's 1756, he made liis first visit to Croyland Account of the great loss our national hisAbbey, whence his career of antiquarian tory sustained by the destruction of Lord pursuits literally began. From Cambridge Montague's housc at Cowcray, in Sussex. he made his first excursions, and continued In 1767 he openent a correspondence, these pursuits every year to various parts mostly under the signature of D. II. in of the kingdom, taking notes, which on bis the Gentleman's Magazine; though not return were digested into form.

without assuming soine others: and on the In 1768 Mr. Gouglı published the "An- death of his fellow collegian, Mr. Dunecdotes of British Topography” in a size combe, in 1786, he occasionally commu. gle quarto volume. At this time the love nicated reviews of literary publications, of topograplical research was daily in- to that valuable miscellany, in which, to creasing; and the outline it contained, of use his own expressions, if he criticised a history of the progress of topographical with warmth ani severity certain innovae enquires in Great Britain and Ireland, tions in church and state, he wrote his. gave new life to the prirsuit. The first con- sentiments with sincerity and impartiality, piler of a work like iliis was John Bagtord, in the fulness of a heart deeply impressed whu furnished Bishap Gibson with the list with a sense of the excellence and happie prefixed to his edition of the Britannia. ness of the English constitution both in Bishop Nicholson's Historical Libraries, church and state. and Dr. Rawlinson's English Topogra- In 1772, Mr. Gough edited Perlin's pher, had of course become greatly im- "Description des Royaulmes d'Angleterre. perfect, and Mr. Gough's work not only et d’Escusse," with De la Serres “ Histoire informed the curious what lights had from de l'Entrée de la Reine Mere du Roy time to tiine been thrown on our topogra- creschrestien dens la Grande Bretagne,"in pliical antiquities, but enumerated niost of a thin volume, quarto. the materials which had been collected, 211 1778 he formed the design of a new MoNTILY MAG. No. 183.



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edition of “ Camden's Britannia." For where, having already purchased the twenty summers he had amused himself collections of Mr. Thomas Martin, with with taking notes in various parts of Eng- the assistance of the captain's pencil, he land, and at last of Scotland, at first with made preparations for an improved no higher view than private information, “ History of Thetford,” which appeared or perbaps of communicating them to the the following year in quarto. Having public in some such form as Dr. Stukeley's also purchased Vertue's plates of the Itinerary, or that of the local antiquities of medals

, coins, and great seals, executed particular towns or districts; but the mis. by the celebrated Simon, and first pubtakes and conciseness of preceding editors lished in 1952, he gave a new and enat last encouraged biin to a new edition of larged edition of them in 1780, 4to. the Britannia; the translation and enlarge. The same year he not only assisted Mr. ment of which occupied seven years, and Nichols in his “Collection of ancient Mr. Gough was nine more attending it Royal and Noble Wills,” but wrote the through the press. It appeared in three preface; and soon after superintended volumes folio, 1789: and has been since the printing of Dr. Nash's “Collections republished by Mr. Stockdale in four vo- for a History of Worcestershire,” in two lumes.

volumes, folio, 1781. About this time, About the same time the design was for- too, Mr. Nichols published his Biblimed for Camden, while on a visit at Poole, otheca Topographica Britannica,” the Mr. Gough heard of the difficulties under design of which was both suggested and which Mr. Hutchins laboured in respect to forwarded by Mr. Gough; and several his History of Dorsetshire. He set on foot essays bear his name, particularly the a subscription, and was the means of " Memoirs of Mr. Edward Rowe Mores; bringing into light one of the most valuable the Reliquia Galeuna ; the History of the of our county histories. Mr Hutchins was Society of Antiquaries of Spalding; the then combating the infirmities of age and Life of Sir John llawkwood; a Genealogout, and Mr. Gough superintended the gical View of the Family of Cromwell; work through the press, whence it issued and the “ History of Croyland-Abbey." in two volumes folio, 1774. Its author, In 1985 Mr. Gough published however, did not live to see it completed, comparative View of the ancient Monudying June 21, 1773. But his daughter ments of India, particularly those on the was enabled to proceed to Bombay, and Island of Salset, near Bombay;" in form a happy connexion with a gentleman which, with considerable industry, he to whom she had been long engaged, Ma- threw together the narratives of traveljor Bellasis, who in grateful return to the lers of diiferent nations. memory of his father-in-law, in 1795, at The next year appeared the first vohis own expence, set on foot a new edi- lume of his grand work, (collecting the tion, to which Mr.Gough cheerfully contri- materials for which had occupied a large buted his assistance, The two first vo- portion of his life) entitled, “ Sepulchral lumes are already in the possession of the Monuments of Great Britain.” The sea world: the greater part of the third was cond volume, in distinct parts, appeared destroyed, we believe, at Mr. Nichols's in 1796 and 1799. In the introduction fire. Except Thomas's re-publication of to the first volume, he enters on a large Dugdale's Warwickshire, and two or three field of enquiry; the mode of interment, others of a paltry kind, this is the only in- and construction of monuments, froin the stance of a county history attaining á se- earliest ages to that which is now praccond edition.

tised in Europe: somewhat of this ground In 1774 he entered into a matrimonial he again goes over in the introduction to connection with a lady whose maiden the second; and tlıroughout the work name was Hall; and retired principally to produces ample reason for inveighing Enfield, the property at which his father against the ravages of conquerors; the purchased in 1723. Here he added to the devastation of false zeal and fanaticisin; family mansion an extensive library, which the depredations of ignorance, interest, contains at the present moment the richest and false taste; the defacements of thé. museum of topography in the kingdom. white-washer's brush, and a variety of

In 1777, be published " A Dissertation other circumstances, whichi, besides the on the Coins of King Canute."

erer-wasting hand of time, have all conIn the snowy season of 1778, Mr. tributed to destroy the sepulchral moGough, accompanied by the late Captain numents of our ancestors. In this work Grose, made an excursion into Norfolk, he professes to have neither the object,


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the play, nor the method of an his whole of his literary career, he was not torian.

only so able, but so ready to bestow on "Our materials (he says) are different, the study of our national antiquities. and my plan adopts only what his excludes; Born to an hereditary fortune, he was great events, great personages, great cha- in all respects pre-eminently qualified for racters, good or bad, are all that he brings the labours of an antiquary; the pain of upon his stage !

whose researches can but rarely meet an I talk of graves, of worms and epitaphs

adequate remuneration. And bis magAnd that small portion of the barren earth

nificent work upon Sepulchral MonuThat serves as paste and covering to our inents, must long ago have convinced the bones!

worid, that he possessed not only in hime Mine are subjects rejected by the his- self the most indefatigable perseverance, torian to the end of each reign, among

but an ardour whichi no expence could the prodigies that distinguish it'; yet is possibly deter. this detail not uninteresting.

Subsequent to 1805, his health, in picture of private mixed with public life, consequence of numerous fits of epilepsy, a subject in which my countrymen have began gradually to decline; and he died been anticipated by their neighbours.”

February 20, 1809; lamented as much The engravings which accompany it by the poor of his neighbourhood for are not only numerous and accurate, but extensive charity, as by the friends of splendid: principally from the hands of learning for his talents. the Basires.

The richest portion of his library, In 1794, Mr. Gough published an ac

which was always open to the studious, count of the beautiful missal presented to

rumour asserts, has been bequeathed to Henry VI. by the Duchess of Bedford, the University of Oxford. which Mr. Edwards, of Pall-mall, purchased at the Duchess of Portland's sale, Some Account of the late right hon. and still possesses. Mr. Gough assisted

JAMES DUFF, EARL of FiFE, VISCOUNT Mr. Nichols also in the greater part of MACDUFF, BARON BRACO of KILBRYDE, his copious, well-directed, and accurate

in the KINGDOM of IRELAND, and BAHistory of Leicestershire: the remaining RON FIFE, in the KINGDOM of GREAT portion of which is still expected by the literary world. In 1803, Mr. Gough published the History and Antiquities Virtute et opera-By virtue and industry.


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London, 1803, 4to. which, though con- to attend the fortunes and the titles fined to the history of a single spot, of the great and opulent. Those who do forms collectively a mass of information not possess these advantages, either hewhose value cannot in justice be lowly reditary or acquired, are supposed by appreciated.

some to contemplate them with sympHis last work which bears the date of toms of jealousy, and to hate or to unthe same year, was that on the “Coins dervalue what they themselves are utof the Seleucida :" illustrated by a beau- terly unable to obtain. It is easy, howtiful set of plates which he had purchased ever to disarm, this species of jealousy of at Mr. Duane's sale.

half its malignity at least, by acting a To the list of works which have either noble part in society, and exhibiting as his name or bis initials attached, it may great a preeminence in public spirit, as be added, that his assistance to bis in family honours and private wealth. friends engaged in literary pursuits, was

These reflections are naturally promore extensive than will probably be duced by contemplating the character of ever known.

a man who has tended not a little, at lle gave considerable belp to Dr. Once to embellish and to improve his naKippis, in the second edition of the Bio- tive country, and whose private fortune grapbia Britannica: and prepared the was increased, and his influence

-aug Lives of Sir John Fastolt, and the Farrar's mented by an attention to agriculture of Little Gidding, for the sixth volume, and planting. which has never appeared. Mr. Ellis, James, Larl of Tife, was born in the in the History of Shoreditch, acknow- town of Bamfl, in 1729. Ile was the ledges great assistance, both from bis pen second son of William, Earl of Filc, by and library; as well as Mr. Malcolm in his second wife, Jane, daughter of Sir the History of London. The prefaces to James Grant, of Grant, Bart. Ilaving numerous other works, acknowledge the an elder brother, who was educated at extensive patronage wlich, during the Westmi ter, he was intended from his



cradle for the profession of the law, and a protecting shade along the dreary his first instructor was the celebrated William Guthrie, whose picture is still His Lordship's ambition, nearly at the jn existence at Duff House, and who, same time, pointed at another object : after marrying in the family, repaired to this was a seat in Parliament. He acLondon, and became one of the most la- cordingly became a candidate for the borious, if not one of the most able, county of Moray, and sat for some years writers of his day.

as its representative. In 1760, he also Meanwhile Mr. Duff, the subject of married Lady Dorothea Sinciair, sole the present memoir, repaired to the Uni- heiress of Alexander, ninth Earl of Caithversity of Edinburgh, for the two-fold ness, with whom he obtained a very conpurpose of completing his education, and siderable fortụnc: but the nuptials did studying the civil law, which is uphap- not take place under happy auspices, and, pily the basis of the jurisprudence of on the whole, this union proved unfortuScoiland, the whole having been entirely nate, perhaps, to both parties. fornied on the French model, in conse- In 1763, be succeeded his father, quence of which it is but little favourable both in bonours and estate, and being either to personal security, or public hap- now in possession of Duff house, a noble piness. But the death of Lord Braco, mansion, erected by the late Mr. Adam, in England, who had turned out exceed- architect, at Leith, and still unfinished, ingly wild, altered the views of his young- he inmediately proceeded to coinplete er brother, so that he immediately re- and to furnish it. turned home, and became, what in Eng- Soon after this he purchased life land is termed, a country gentleman.- house, at Whitehall, and having a taste Ile found his father in possession of a for building, expended a very large sum very large fortune, which lie bad aug. in altering, or rather rebuilding it. 511mented by the purchase of considerable deel, no Nobleman in Great Britain posproperties in the counties of Aberdeen, sessed, perhaps, su many seats, for, in Moray, and Bamff. A rigorous and, addition to the town and country house perhaps, salutary economy, proverbial already mentioned, he had many others, for two or three generations in the fa- some of which shall be here evumerate:l. mily, had enabled bin to achieve this; Or Delgaty castle, where he occasionand he had good sense enough, instead ally resided, all the floors were formed of leaving pitiful annuities to bis younger from wood out of his own plantations.children, to bequeath them separate and At Rothcmay house, Mary Queen of independent estates.

Scots appears to bave slept: it is situate During the life of his father Mr. Duff, in a picturesque country, but sequestered now become Lord Braco, conceived the from all the world. Innes house, with outline of a noble plan for the improve- the adjoining lands, he purchased from ment of his patrimonial fortune, which bis cousin, Sir James lunes Ker, the he filled up and completed, after the poth lineal descent froin Bercaldus, lapse of more than half a century. His whose blood bas mingicd with that of model and mentor, on this occasion, was the Scottish monarchs. Balsenny castle the late Earl of Findlater, a nobleman is situate on the banks of the Devron, who possessed a great and enlightened while Marr lodge is in the centre of Abermind, and whose name and deeds will be deenshire. Here are grouse, ptarmigan, long remembered in that portion of Scot- and game of all sorts; bere, too, berds "Jand, which at this day reaps so many of wild deer scour along the mountain's advantages from his beneficent projects. brow, dart precipitately into the dells and In contorinity to his judgment, which had valleys, and at times approach within been ripened by travel and experience, gun-shot of the house. his Lordship began to plant, and in the During the political ebullition that succourse of a few years, the sides and tops ceeded the French Revolution, in this of hills, nearly inaccessible, and bitherto country, the Earl of life, we believe, was unproductive, began to assume a new an Alarmist, and like many others of that and a more advantageous aspect. The description, in order to demonstrate his sterile soil now appeared verdant, and confidence in the existing government, the uniform dull and barren extent of accepted of an English pecrage from it. heath obtained a warmer and a more ci- Accordingly, in 1793, he was created vilized tint, from the fir, the pineaster, Baron Fife, of the kingdom of Great Brithe larch, the elm, the ash, and the oak, tain. This circumstance, however flatwhose united inasses for the first time cast tering it might prove in one point of view,


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