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DRED SPIRITS ON THE RETURN
Old Winter is come, all so cold and so cheer. Or, if thou art displanted there, less,
To grace the bosom of the fair, And what is there here can enliven the O, teach simplicity to them, heart?
Who never knew the peerless gem! 'Tis Friendship and Love-iwo gems shining Tell those, by Error led astray, and peerless,
That Wisdom is the only way From whom may we never have reason to Which leads to purity like thine parc.
Which leads to ev'ry grace divine ! Yes, Friendship and Love-whose warm rays
January, 1809. Can thaw the cold frost of the pitiless mind: *Tis Friendship and Love, with affection com THI CALL OF A SYLPMID TO ITS KIN.
CONGENIAL spirits, haste away,
Secure from wintry winds ye lay ;
Again revive and view the light;
Again inhale the balmy airs
That o'er the mountains' summits play,
And free from sorrows, free from cares,
'Midst odorous sweets pursue your way. In Love's pure light thy forin was drest, I smild to mark thy gentle breast
By gentle zephyrs borne along, Soft trembling to the sigh of mine.
Beneath a pure and azure sky,
We'll listen to the shepherd's song,
Or through the shady woodland ily,
On violets will we rest unseen, And hung the morn of Youch with gloom;
In harebells sip the honied dew,
And lurk beneath the herbage green,
Where primroses the valley strew,
Beside the stream where wearied lies Delighied o'er thy bosom stray,
The village swain in rustic geer,
Invisible to mortal eyes,
We'll whisper pleasure in his ear.
All nature smiles with gladd’ning light, " Affection's tear hath glisten'd thine !"
The Sun displays his cheering ray,
Then, rising from your shades of night,
Congenial spirits haste away.
VIRGINIA TO PAUL FROM TRANCE.
TO THE SNOWDROP.
By JOHN MAYNE,
" The Siller Gun." FIRST of the Spring that smiles on me,
I pay my early court to thee!
Ah! as thou gazest on thy devious way,
Nor wealth, nor pow'r, nor threats of
PROCEEDINGS OF LEARNED SOCIETIES. ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON. tina wire, communicating with the posi
E have in different parts of the tive side, being brought in contact with Monthly Magazine, given an account of action almost instantly took place; the the discoveries made by Mr. Davy; these pot-ash fused at both points of electrizaaccounts being frequently taken from tion: there was a violent effervescence memory, by a person who has diligently at the upper surface; at the lower, or attended the lectures of the Royal Insti- negative surface, there was no liberation tution, would necessarily be imperfect. of elastic fluid; but small globules having We intend, therefore, in this and some a high metallic lustre, similar, in visible subsequent articles to lay before our rea characters, to miercury, appeared; some ders a more exact analysis of what has of which burnt with explosion and bright been done by this learned professor, and fame, as soon as they were formed, and in the order in which he communicated others remained, and were merely tarthe same to the Royal Society of Lon- nished, and finally covered with a white don. Mr. Davy first described the me- film, which formed on their surfaces. thods made use for the decomposition of "These globules,” says the professor, the fixed alkalies; and he found that numerous experiments soon shewed to the powers of electrical decomposition be the substance I was in search of, and were proportional to the strength of the a peculiar inflammable principle, the baopposite electricities in the circuit, and sis of pot-ash." He ascertained that to the conducting power and degree of the platina was not at all connected with concentration of the materials employed. the result, for the same substance was In his first attempts at the decomposition produced when other metals, or chara of the fixed alkalies, he acted upon aque- coal, were employed for completing the ous solutions of potash and soda, satura-' circuit. ted at the common degrees of tempera
Soda, when acted upon in a similar ture, with the Voltaic batteries, but in manner, exhibited an analogous result, these cases; the water alone was affected, but it required a battery of stronger powa and hydrogen and oxygen disengaged ers. The substance produced from potwith the production of much heat, and asls, which is now denominated “Pou violent effervesence. As water appear. tassium,” remained fluid at the tem. ed to prevent the decomposition, he used perature of the atmosphere, at the time potash in igneous fusion, and some bril- of its production: that from soda, called liant phenomena were produced ; and sodaum,”, which was fluid, in the dewhen the platina spoon, on which the gree of heat of the alkali, during its for potash was placed, was made to commu- mation, became solid on cooling. The nicate with the negative side of the bat- globules often burnt at the moment of tery, and the connection from the posi- their formation, and sometimes violently tive side was made with platina wire, a exploded and separated into smaller glovivid and constant light appeared at the bules, which flew with great velocity opposite point: there was no effect of through the air,in a state of vivid combusa inflammation round it; but aëriform buku tion, producing a beautiful effect of contibles, which, inflamed in the atmosphere, nued jets of fire. rose round the potash. He made some
In speaking of the theory, Mr. Davy attempts to collect the combustible mat observed, that the metallic lustre of the ter, but without success; and he only at
substance from potash, immediately betained his object, hy employing electrici- came destroyed in the atmosphere, and ty as the common agent of fusion and that a white crust formed upon it. This decomposition.
crust is pure potash, which immediately Pot-ash, when perfectly dried by igni- deliquesced, and new quantities were tion, is a non-conductor; but with the formed, which in their turn, attracted slightest addition of moisture, becomes moisture from the atmosphere, till the a good conductor, and in this state it whole globule disappeared, and assumed readily fuses and decomposes by strong the form of a saturated solution of potelectrical powers. Having placed a
Water is likewise decomposed in small piece of pure pot-ash, on an insu- the process; for it is demonstrated that later disk of platina connected with the the basis of the fixed alkalies, that is, pegative side of the battery, and a pla. “Potassiuni” and “Sodaun," act upon
this substance with greater energy than and is found unaltered after distillation. any other known bodies. Hence the . - It is a perfect conductor of electricity. minute theory of oxydation of the basis When a spark is taken froin the Voltaic of the alkalies in the air is this:-oxygen battery from a large globule; the light gas is first attracted by them, and alkali is green, and combustion takes place at formed; this alkali speedily absorbs the point of contact only.
When a water; this water is again decomposed; small globule is used, it is completely therefore, during the conversion of a glo. dissipated with explosion accompanied bule into alkaline solution, there is a con- by a most vivid flame. It is an excellent stant and rapid disengagement of small conductor of heat; but resembling the quantities of gas. From the facts related, metals in all these sensible properties, it of which we mention only a part, it is is very different from any of them in speinferred by Mr. Davy, that there is the cific gravity, being only as 6 to 10, comsame evidence for the decomposition of pared with water, so that it is the lightest potash and soda into oxygen and two fluid body knows. peculiar substances, as there is for the With respect to chemical relations; decompositions of sulphuric and phos. it combines with oxygen, slowly and withphoric acids and the metallic oxydes in. out flame, at all tenperatures below that to oxygen and their respective bases. In of vaporization; but at this temperature the analyses, no substances capable of combustion takes place, and the light decomposition are present, but the alka- is of a brilliant whiteness, and the heat lies and a minute portion of moisture; intense. When a globule is heated in which seems in no other way essential to hydrogen gas at a degree below its point the result, than in rendering then con- of vaporization, it seems to dissolve in it, ductors at the surface: for he bas ascer for the globule diminishes in volume, and tained that the new substances are not the gas explodes with alkaline fumes generated till the interior, which is dry, and bright light when suffered to pass inbegins to be fused.
to the air. When brought into contact The combustible bases of the fixed al- with water, it decomposes it with great kalies, seem to be repelled as other coin- violence; an instantaneous explosion is bustible substances, by positively electri- produced with bright Hame, and a solution fied surfaces, and attracted by negative- of pure potash is the result. When a ly electrified surfaces, and the oxygen globule of this substance is placed upon follows the contrary order: or, the oxygen ice, it instantly burns with a bright flame, being naturally possessed of the negative and a deep hole is made in the ice, energy, and the bases of the positive, do which is found to contain a solution of not remain in combination when either potash. of them is brought into an electrical state Theory :--The phenomena seem to de opposite to its natural one.
pend on the strong attraction of the poAfter Mr. Dary detected the bases of tassium for oxygen; and of the potash for the fixed alkalies, he found great difficul- water. The heat which arises froin two ty in preserving and confining them so as causes, decomposition and combination, to examine their properties; but he is sufficiently intense to produce inflamfound that in recently distilled naptha mation. The production of alkali in they might be preserved some days with the decomposition of water by potassium, out much change. The basis of potash is shewn by dropping a globule of it upon at 60° of Fahrenheit possessed the general moistened paper, tinged with turmeric. appearance of mercury, so as not to be At the moment that the globule comes distinguished from it, but at that degree into contact with the water, it burns, of temperature, it is only imperfectly and moves rapidly upon the paper, as if fluid ; at 70° it is more fluid, and at in search of moisture, leaving behind it 1000 its fluidity is perfect, so that diffe a deep reddish brown trace, and acting rent globules will run into one. At 500 upon the paper as dry caustic potash. it is soft and malleable, with the lustre of So strong is the attraction of potash for polished silver, and at the freezing point oxygen, and so great the energy of its ac, it becomes harder and brittle, and when tion upon water, that it discovers and broken into fragments, exhibits a crys- decomposes the small quantities of water tallized texture, which by means of the contained in alcohol and ether. Potash microscope seems composed of beautiful is insoluble in ether; but when potassium, faceis of a perfect whiteness, and high the basis, is thrown into it, oxygen is furmetallic splendor. At a beat approach- nished, and hydrogen gas is disengaged, ing redness, it is converted into vapour, and the alkali as it forms renders the
ether white and turbid. In ether and Potassium readily reduces metallic alcohol the energy of its action is pro- oxides, when heated in contact with portional to the quantity of water they them: it decomposes readily flint and contain, and hydrogen and potash are green glass, with a gentle heat; alkali the constant result.
is immediately formed by oxygen from Potassium thrown into solutions of the ibe oxides which dissolves the glass, and mineral acids, inflames and burns on a new surface is soon exposed to the the surface. It readily combines with agent. the simple and inflammable solids and We shall in our next, give a more dewith meials; with phosphorus and sulphur, tailed account of the decomposition of forming compounds similar to the me- soda; and shall now present the reader tallic phosphurets and sulphurets. When with a short analysis of the application it is brought into contact with a piece of the gas from coal to economical purof phosphorus, and pressed upon, ihere poses by Mr. William Murdoch. This is a considerable action; they become gentleman by means of coal-gas com. fluid together, burn, and produce phos- pletely lighted up last winter, the cotton phate of potash. When potassium is manufactory of Messrs. Phillips and Lee, brought into contact with sulphur in at Manchester, the largest in the kingfusion in the atmosphere, a great inflain- dom. The light used, was ascertained to mation takes place and sulphuret of pot- be equal to that prorluced by 2500 mould ash is formed. The sulpliuretted basis candles of six to the pound. In this ine becomes oxygenated by exposure to the stance the coal was distilled in iron reair, and is finally converted into sul- torts, which were kept constantly at phate. When one part of potassium is work, and the gas as it rose was conveyadded to '8 or 10 parts of mercury at ed by iron pipes into large reservoirs, abyat 600 of Fahrenheit, they instantly where it was worked and purified, preunite, and form a substance like mercury viously to. its being conveyed through in colour, but less coherent, and sınall other pipes called nains. lo the mill. portions of it appear as flattened spheres. The burners, where the gas was consuWhen a globule is made to touch a glo- med, were connected with the mains by bule of mercury about twice as large, short tubes, eacii of which was furnished they combine with heat; the compound with a cock to regulate the admission of is fluid at the temperature of its forma- the gas to each burner, and to shut it off tion; but when cool it appears as a solid when requisite. The burners were of metal, similar in colour to silver. If the two kinds : the one was upon the prinpotassiuni be still increased the amalgam ciple of the Argand lamp, and resembled becomes harder, and brittle. When the it in appearance, the other was a small proportions are 1 of potassium and 70 of curved tube with a conical end, having mercury the amalgam is soft and mal- three circular apertures of about the oth leable. If the compounds are exposed of an inch in diameter, through which to air, they rapidly absorb oxygen ; pot- the gas issued, forming three divergent ash which deliquesces is formed, and in jets of flame, somewhat like a fleur-dea few minutes the mercury is found pure lis. This tube, from its shape and apand unaltered. When a globule of amalgam pearance, was called the cockspur burner. is thrown into water, it rapidly decompo. In the whole building there were 271 arses it with a hissing noise; potash is gands, and 633 cockspurs; each of the formed, pure hydrogen is disengaged, former giving a light equal to four canand the mercury remains free. The dles, and each of the latter a light equal action of potassium upon the inflamma- to 25. All together require an hourly ble oily compound bodies, confirms the supply of 1250 cubic feet of gas, produother facts of the strength of its attrac- ced from cannel coal. On recently distilled
The whole annual expence, allowing naptha it has very little action; but in 5501. for apparatus, is reckoned at 6001. naptha that has been exposed to the but that of candles, to give the same air, it soon oxydates, and alkali is formed, light, would be 2000l. supposing candles which unites with the naptha, into a one shilling per lb, only. This calculabrown soap that collects round the glo- tion was made on the supposition that bule. On concrete and fixed oils, when the light was used only two hours per heated, it acts slowly, coaly matter is day, through the year, but if it be requideposited, a little gas is evolved, and a red three hours : the cost will be 6501. soap is formed. By heat it rapidly de. for gas, and 3000l. for candles. At first composes the yolatile oils.
there was some inconvenience from the
tion for oxygen.
şnell produced, but this is entirely done ton-mills are so much exposed. Mr. away, and it being reefrom the danger' l'e Murdoch claims the first idea of applya sulting from sparks and snuffing candles, ing, and the first actual application of, diminishes the bazard of fire to which cot this gas to economical
NEW PATENTS LATELY ENROLLED.
WR. DAVID THOMAS's (FEATHERSTONE added to the urn and percolator, and
BUILDINGS,)for a perforated Vessel, Per- may be regarded as a part of the latter, colutor und Frane, for making or pre- The frame or stand is calculated to eleparing Potable Coffee.
vate and support, at a proper height for THE invention claimed by this spe- drawing off its contents, a vessel dis
, urn, or vessel which may be made of va constructed in the common form of urns, rious forms, a percolator, and a frame, whether adapted to this or any
pure which may be used collectively in a pose. portable form, or separately. The prin The Patentee reserves to himself the cipal part of the machine is an urn, fur- exclusive right of modifying and varying nished with a cock for drawing off its the application of these principles, iniencontents, which is the receiver of the tions, and improvements, aceording to beverage, prepared from the material circumstances, in such manner as may coffee, by means of hot or boiling water, best suit the forın of the yeusel or its apmade to pass through it. To render the pendages, tas well in respect to the perum effective, since filtration into a close toration as to the percolator and frame, vessel would soon be impeded by the whether atleeung their respective forms compressed air, a number of small per or situation. forations are made in the upper part of it. These are calculated to release the MR. WILLIAM SHOTWELL'S (YORK,) for confined and rarified air, being open certain Improvements in the manufacwhile the percolation is going on, and so ture of Mustard. contrived, that they are covered at the This invention consists in taking mus. same time, and with the same cover as tard bran, or the offal of inustard, after the large aperture or mouth of the urn, as much mustard flour has been taken upon the removal of the percolator. By out as is done by the usual method. these means the urn becomes a close This bran or offal is wetted with water vessel, when the percolation is comple- and ground, and then immersed in wa. ted, from which neither the finer quali- ter, till the most ponderous parts fall ties, nor essence of the coffee, nor its to the bottom. Then, while the flour is heat, can escape by evaporation. The suspended, all that is above the bran is next part of the invention is the percola- to be drawn into a flannel, or other tor, or small box, which contains and strainer, placed over a vat, which vat confines the coffee in its pulverized state, is to have a luch at its bottom; the and prevents its rising and mingling with strainer serves to filter the mustard, and the water, when poured in the cylinder: prevents any particles of bran from passit is the inedium through which the water ing into the vat. In this var, the muspasses into the urn, where it assumes the tard-four is şoffered to precipitate, and character of potable coffee. It is fur- the water is drawn off from the four as nished with a cover pierced through with close as possible, and may be used for very small holes, which is fitted to it, succeeding parcels of the same sort of either independently of the cylinder, or bran, as often as it is found to answer. fixed to the latter in that part which is During the process, the air is to be kept contiguous to the percolator. In either from the mustard, to preserve its puncase, its office is the same, namely, to gency. confine the coffee, so as to prevent any To make dry mustard from the bran, portion of the water from passing into after as much mustard-flour has been tathe receiver, but throngh the whole ken from it as is done by the usual
The bottom of the percolator is modes, the patentee takes the coles of pierced or bored in the same way as its Indian corn, breaks them small, mixes cover. The cylinder is a cube super- then with the mustard bran, grinds them