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the command of twenty Peons 'as his family, in the greatest misery, a Naick.

begged their way to the eastward, Futtè Mohammed, now Futtè until their arrival at Colar, where Naick, continued to distinguish their distresses induced the widow himself in the service of the Sou- to listen to the proposal of Futte badar, and was gradually advanced Naick to be united to one of her in rank and consequence. His daughters. After this marriage, first wife was Seydanee Saheba, the rest of the family, relieved the daughter of Burra Saheb, a from their difficulties, proceeded religous person at Colar, who bore to Arcot. him three sons, Wellee Saheb, Derga Kooli Khan of Sera soon Ali Saheb, and Behelole Saheb. afterwards died, and was succeedIt was on the death of this lady ated by his son Abdul Russool an early age that he began the Khan. The new Soubadar or mausoleum, mosque, tank, and Nabob, and Futtè Naick, for some gardens, at which the authors of reason not mentioned, were unthe manuscript, which is chiefly favourably disposed to each other; followed in this statement, now and the Naick accordingly preofficiate : the buildings are said to pared to seek another master, the have been finished several years Nabob Saadut Oolla Khan, atafterwards, when he was appoint- Arcot. The terms of his service, ed Foujedar of the district; but with fifty horse and fourteen hunin whatever manner these dates dred Peons, by whom he was ac may be arranged, the buildings companied, were nearly adjusted, themselves, although far removed when a difficulty arose with refrom architectural grandeur, ex- gard to his being received with hibit unquestionable evidence that the tazeem, or the compliment of the founder, at the time of their other officers rising to salute erection, had attained a very re- him when he approached them in spectable degree of rank, property the Durbar : a mark of deference and consideration. Of the second which is usual towards persons marriage of Futte Naick the fol- of rank, but at that period was lowing account has been commu- reserved for officers of horse, nicated to me by several authori. who, like the ancient cavaliers of ties, and confirmed by the written Europe, looked down on the prenarrative of Budr u Zeman Khan, tensions of an officer of infantry. for one of whose relations the lady The Naick could not procure the was intended. A Nevayet,* of tazeem, and being resolved not to respectable family, from the Con- serve without it, departed to can, was travelling across the Chittoor, where he was better repeninsula with his wife, one son ceived by the Foujedar, or pro(Ibrahim Saheb), and two daugh- vincial commander, Tahir Khan. ters, to Arcot. At Tarrikera, The mother-in-law of Futte near the borders of Bednore, he Naick had been ill received at was robbed and murdered ; and Arcot, on account of her connec

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* Nevayet, generally supposed to be a corruption of the Hindostanee and Mahratta terms for new comer,

tion with the Naick; and the fa- a well contested battle, with most mily into which she expected to of his officers of rank. Futte marry her other daughter decli- Mohammed, and his son Wellee ned the alliance for the same cause. Saheb, fell on this sanguinary field; She therefore joined her son-in- and the bodies being removed by law at Chittoor, and he having the pious care of their attendants, in the mean time lost his second their tombs are now shown in the wife without issue, took to himself mausoleum of the family at Colar. her younger sister as a third. Great Balipoor was the Jageer

Tahir Mohammed Khan was of the deceased Abdul Russool, soon afterwards recalled to court and previously to the battle, the at Arcot; but the Naick, still re- families of all his principal officers, membering the tazeem, declined and among the rest that of Futte to accompany him. He nego- Mohammed, were, according to ciated for the service which he the routine of suspicion customary had formerly rejected, and was in similar cases, thrown into that received by Abdul Russool Khan fort. of Sera as Foujedar, or provincial Abbas Kooli Khan, the son of commandant of Colar, with Boo- the deceased, was not disturbed dicota as his Jageer, and the title in the personal Jageer of his faof Futté Mohammed Khan. ther : maternal feeling, combined

His two sons by the Nevayet with good sense, suggested to his lady, the younger of the sisters, mother, who in a few short years were born at Boodicota; viz. had seen the mangled corpses of 1. Shabaz Saheb ; 2. Hyder Sa- her husband and father-in-law, heb.

the expedient of securing the Jag. When Nizam ul Moolk formed eer on the condition of a formal the design of establishing a sepa- renunciation of the office of Sourate and independent empire in badar or Nabob, and a solemn the south, the removal from subor. promise to exert the influence of dinate commands of all persons the family at court for the confirwho either retained any principle mation of Tahir Mohammed : and of fidelity to the house of Timour, Saadut Oolla Khan, who directed or had indulged in views of inde- in all things the proceedings of pendent authority for themselves, Sera, readily perceived the policy was essential to his success. The of acceding to this moderate money and influence of Saadut proposition. Oolla Khan had long been em- Abbas Kooli Khan, however, ployed to obtain the office of Sou- did not neglect to avail himself of bador of Sera for a dependant of the circumstances in which he his own; and it was chiefly through was placed, to plunder to the exhis interest that Tahir Khan was tent that he durst the families deappointed to that office, and aided posited in the fort; and that of by Saadut Oolla to fight for its Futtè Mohammed was not among possession. He found the stand those which escaped. The preard of his former Naick marshal- text was a balance, due from the led on the side of his opponent deceased while Foujedar of Colar. Abdul Russool, who was slain in The sops, Shahaz Saheb, and Hyder Saheb, the former about early age, and that his subsequent nine, tlie latter seven years of age, temper was not found fitted to were called upon for payment. bear the control of a pedagogue. The usual methods were resorted When approaching maturity of to and succeeded ; but not before age, he had shown a greater disthe torture, in its most cruel and position to the pursuit of pleasure ignominious forms, had been ap- and the sports of the chase, than plied to both the boys, and pro- to the restraints of a military life; bably to their mother. This in- and would frequently absent himhuman conduct was not forgotten; self for weeks together, secretly and it will be seen in the sequel immersed in voluptuous riot, or that Hyder, in his prosperous for- passing with facility, as was the tune, sought his revenge after the habit of his whole life, to the oplapse of thirty-two years, with all posite extreme of abstinence and the virulence belonging to the excessive exertion ; wandering in memory

of a recent injury. the woods while pursuing, not The family, plundered of its without danger, his favourite property, was permitted to depart, amusements. In the siege of and the mother, after the loss of Deonhully he began to pay atevery thing but her children and tention to the profession of arms, her honour, * proceeded to Banga- first appearing as a volunteer lore to seek the protection of her horseman in his brother's corps, brother Ibraham Saheb, who was and afterwards occasionally inin the service of the Killadar of trusted with the command of parthat place, with a small command ties of infantry in the trenches. of Peons. When the elder bro. He was observed on every service ther Shabaz Saheb had attained of danger to lead the way, and to a sufficient age, his uncle pro- conduct himself with a coolness cured for him a recommendation and self-possession seldom found toa Hindoo officer of rank at Serin- in a young soldier. This bungling gapatam, and he was received into and unskilful siege, directed by a the service as a subordinate offi- man who had neither seen nor cer of Peons, in which situation studied the profession of arms, and he distinguished himself, and gra- possessed no quality of a soldier dually rose to the command of but headlong courage, was protwo hundred horse and one thou- tracted for nine months, when the sand Peons, which he now held Poligar consented to evacuate the in the army before Deonhully. place on the condition of being Hyder, although twenty-seven permitted to retire unmolested years of age, was not in the ser- with his family to his relation the vice ; and as he remained through Poligar of little Balipoor. In the

; life unacquainted with the first course of this service Hyder was elements of reading or writing, it distinguished by the particular may be inferred that the misfor- favour of Nunjeraj; and, at its tunes of his family prevented an close, was raised at once to the attention to this object during his command of fifty horse and two

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• The exact phrase of the original Suttaun à Towareekh by Tippoo Sultaun,

hundred infantry, with orders to the plunderers received, besides recruit and augment his corps, and their direct pay, one half of the to the charge of one of the gates booty which was realized; the of this frontier fortress.

other half was appropriated by Hyder, under a combination of checks which rendered it nearly

impossible to secrete any portion ANECDOTES OF HYDER. From

of the plunder. Moveable property the same.

of every description was their obIn the course of the operations ject; and, as already noticed, they before Trichinopoly, the Beder did not hesitate to acquire it by peons, in the service of Hyder, simple theft from friends, when that were gradually augmented, and could be done without suspicion, exercised their usual industry; and with more convenience than and a body of select Pindaries, or from enemies. Nothing was unBeid, was also gradually raised seasonable or unacceptable ; from for similar purposes. This de- convoys of grain, down to the scription of horse receive no pay clothes, turbans, earrings, of train the service of many of the states vellers, or villagers, whether men, of India, but live on the devasta. women, or children. Cattle and tion of the enemy's country. sheep were among the most profit, Hyder, on his first nomination to able heads of plunder: muskets a command, had engaged in his and horses were sometimes ob. service à bramin mutteseddy, tained in booty, sometimes by named Kundè Row, who will occu- purchase. The numbers under his py a prominent place in our future command increased with his narrative. To the cool and cal- resources : and before he left culating mind of a bramin ac- Trichinopoly, besides the usual countant, this man added great appendages of a chief of rank, sagacity and original thinking; a in elephants, camels, tents, and boldness which did not hesitate magnificent appointments, he was regarding means; and a combina- rated on the returns and received

; tion of ideas which enabled him pay for one thousand five hundred to convert the unprofitable busi- horse, three thousand regular in. ness of war into a regular system fantry, two thousand peons, and of finance. Hyder, who could four guns, with their equipments. neither read nor write, remedied of the horses, five hundred were this defect of education by trust- his own property; and the differing to a most extraordinary me. ence between the sum allowed by mory; and valued himself, at this government, and that disbursed in early period of his political life, the pay of the man, and the proon going through arithmetical vender of the horse, was Hyder's calculations of some length, with profit. In consideration of his equal accuracy, and more quick- furnishing the cannon and their ness, than the most expert ac- draught, the muskets and accou. countant. The consultations of trements of regular infantry, he these two persons produced a sys• was allowed a certain sum for each tem, regularly organized, by which gun with its equipments, and for every hundred men ; and was per- friend, until he had reached the promitted to make his own agree. per position, when, the distribuments with the individuals at in- tion of troops being previously ferior rates; they also, as well as made, he swept off the whole of the rest of his troops, regularly ac- the cattle of the open country, counting for one half of the plun- and drove them rapidly to Darader they acquired. Some portion poor; where they were divided of this description belongs to the according to compact, and sold system of most native armies, and at high prices, generally to their would enter into the history of former proprietors. He now commost successful Indian chiefs; but menced his operations against none ever combined with so much the Poligars, in which, after an skill the perfect attachment of his obstinate and protracted contest, men, with the conversion to his he was ultimately successful. own use of so large a portion of Among the deceptions which lie what was issued for their pay- practised on the government in ment: and Sevagi alone could be the course of this service, some brought into competition with were so ludicrously gross, that I Hyder for theregular organization should hesitate to state them, if of a system of plunder.

they had not been related to me The designation of Hyder's by more than one eye-witness. new appointment was that of Fou. Nunjeraj, on the receipt of Hyder's jedar of Dindegul; and having re- dispatches, with a long list of cruited his corps with the most killed and wounded, sent a special select of the men discharged by commissioner with rich presents Nunjeraj, he marched at the head for Hyder and the officers who of five thousand regular infantry, were represented to have distintwo thousand five hundred horse, guished themselves and Zuckhum two thousand peons and six guns. puttee for the wounded. This The department of accounts under officer was soon made to underKundè Row had necessarily been stand his business. Zuckhum augmented, and furnished em- puttee is an allowance to wounded ployment for several clerks, who men, as some compensation for were well versed in his system; their sufferings, and for the purand on the departure of Hyderpose of enabling them to defray to a distant station, it was con- the expences of their cure; for sidered expedient that his confi- an Indian army has neither hosdential friend and servant Kundè pitals, nor surgeons, provided by Row should remain at court to the State. The allowance on this watch over his interests. On ap- occasion was fourteen rupees a proaching Pylney and Veerapat- month, until the cure should be chey, he lulled those Poligars into completed. Hyder marshalled security by offering to exert his his wounded men to be inspected influence at court to obtain a re- by the commissioner: sixty-seven mission of their tribute on condi- was the true number; 'but about tion of their consenting to serve

seven' hundred had their legs or with his army ; and was thus per

up with yellow bandamitted to pursue his rout as a ges, and acted their parts with en

arms bound

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