ground immediately around them it can be turned and tossed con. is allotted for hay. The extent is veniently. I observed in many greater or less according to cir. places that no more was cut at a cumstances; and though hay is by time than what would employ the far the most important article to people on the farm to dry; and a farmer in Iceland, I do not re- before any more was cut, the collect to have seen any signs of first portion was carried home. exertion to improve a hay field When bog-grasses are accessible, by draining, or otherwise. All they are carefully cut and made the manure is bestowed upon the into hay. The process of drying little billocks, which surround the is the same as with us; and when houses like graves, into which the carried home, the hay is made up hay ground is generally partition into long and narrow stacks, often ed. The people believe that a

before it is perfectly dry, and congreater quantity of grass can grow sequently much of it is spoiled by upon an extended surface of this heating. The hay is kept chiefly sort; and this erroneous notion is for the cows, on which the people entertained even by the higher depend for much of their subsistclasses. That a greater surface is

In severe weather, a little procured, is true ; but as every is given to the sheep and horses ; plant grows perpendicularly, or

but they often struggle through a as nearly so as circumstances will hard winter without any sustenance admit, a greater produce cannot but what they can procure for be obtained. The speedy evapo

themselves. ration of moisture, occasioned by

As soon as the hay around the the smallness of the hillocks, and house is secured, the farmers give the air circulating between them,

a feast, or harvest-home. This is must render the grass that does a supper of which the chief deligrow, less luxuriant than it would cacy is porridge, made of meal of be otherwise. About the time of some sort, and milk. When the our arrival in Iceland, the people whole hay-harvest is finished, anwere busy spreading the dung; other feast takes place, when a and about the end of July, the fat sheep is killed. Though neihay harvest had begun in many ther dancing nor singing are called places. The grass is neither close, in aid, these feasts are cheerful nor long, at the time it is reckons and merry. ed fit for cutting. We did not

The immense extent of the bogs observe any field in which the and swamps of Iceland renders it useless or less nutritious plants obvious to any one who has atdid not exceed, or at least equal tended to the subject, that the cliin number, those that were really mate must be greatly deteriorated valuable. Every thing that grows by the evaporation from them. is cut down by means of a short Were the people to set about narrow scythe, with which the draining the bogs, they would find Icelanders work expeditiously and not only the climate improve, but neatly, making all the little Knolls the quantity of grass fit for hay to perfectly bare. When cut, the increase largely. There seems to grass is commonly gathered to be some prejudice againstdraining, gether on some even place, where which a little intercourse with


Britain may probably remove. I yond.which it does not pass. The do not know any place where smell and taste of the sour butter draining could be more easily or are very disagreeable to English more advantageously practised palates, though Icelanders delight than in Indreholm, and in the coun. in it. When there is a scarcity of try lying between Akkrefell and butter, the people eat tallow. The the Skardsheidè.

former was not very plentiful last The cattle, in point of size and summer, and consequently little appearance, are very like the larg- tallow was brought to market; and est of our highland sorts, except I have seen children eating lumps in one respect, that those of Ice- of it with as much pleasure as our land are seldom seen with horns. little ones express when sucking a As in other countries, we meet piece of sugar-candy. When peowith finer cattle on some farms ple go to the northern districts for than on others ; but, from every the purpose of cutting hay, they observation I could make, and in- are paid for their work in butter,

mation I could obtain, the Ice- at the rate of 30 lbs. per week. It land farmers know nothing of the is made in churns of the form art of breeding stock. The bulls most common in this country, in are in general ugly, and no use is which the cream is agitated by the made of them till after they are perpendicular motion of a plunger. five

years old. In rearing a bull. Sometimes two are worked by one calf no more attention is paid to handle fastened to a cross-piece of him than to others. Taking all the wood, to which the plungers are circumstances of management to- connected by projecting arms, the gether, I had some reason to be cross-piece forming the angle besurprised to find the cattle upon tween them and the handle, and the whole so handsome. The cows turning on two pivots. There is in general yield a considerable not much cheese made in Iceland, quantity of milk, many of them and they do not begin to manuten or twelve quarts per day, and facture it till late in the season. It some a good deal more. Milk is is of very inferior quality. The usually made into what is called manufacture of butter and sour skier, which has been already men- whey employs the farmer's wife tioned.

during his absence, while he is Sour whey, mixed with water, engaged in fishing. In some parts is a favourite beverage of the Ice- of the country the servants or chillanders, and they seldom travel dren are employed in gathering without a supply of it. Butter, lichen and angelica root. The however, is the chief article among former is carefully dried and packthe products of the farm, and of edfor use; and the latter is buried, this the Icelanders eat a surprising and used more as an article of quantity. They value it most at- luxury than of subsistence. ter it has been barrelled, without The sheep of Iceland appear to salt, and kept several years. It is be the same with the old Scotch wonderful how well butter keeps highland sort, which is now nearly in this manner ; it arrives at a extinct. They are larger, however, certain degree of rancidity, be and the wool is long and soft, but


not fine. Many of them are en- the mountains before the comtirely black, and a great proportion mencement of winter, is a very are black and white. The wool is important part of the business of never shorn, but pulled off. Much an Iceland farmer. As soon as the of it is lost before it is taken off; hay harvest is over, and when and what remains, after hanging the Hreppstiorè, or parish officer, for a time on the animal's back, thinks that the farmers are ready, becomes spoiled and felted by the he informs the Sysselman of the rain. The sheep are very much district, who causes a notice to be infested by vermin, known in Eng- given in the churches, that on a land by the name of ticks and keds. certain day the gathering of the The fambs are early restrained sheep shall commence, and, at from sucking; and the ewes are the same time, appoints a place of milked, and butter is made from rendezvous. Every farmer who the produce.

has a considerable part of his stock It is part of the employment of feeding on the mountains, must the women, during winter, to pick send one man; or, if the number and clean the wool, and to spin it. of his sheep be very small, le A considerable quantity is export- may join with another whose case ed; and it is so valuable an article is similar, and together they send in Denmark, that it sells in Ice

When the men destined for land for as much as coarse wool this service assemble, they choose in the north of Scotland.

one who has had much experience, About the year 1756, an attempt whom they agree to obey, and was made to improve the wool in they give him the title of king, Iceland, by the introduction of and the power of selecting two asSpanish rams; but, owing to neg- sociates as counsellors. On the ap. ligence, it was unsuccessful. With pointed day they meet at the place that zeal for bettering the condi- fixed upon, perhaps to the numtion of his country which distin- ber of 200, on horseback. Havguishes him, Mr. Stephenson of ing pitched their tents, and comIndreholm brought a few Merinomitted their horses to the care of rams and ewes from Norway in children who have accompanied the year 1808. Their wool is them, the king, on horseback, tolerably fine, but by no means gives his orders, and sends the so good as that of the Merinos in men off two and two, strictly enEngland. I saw the lambs of the joining them not to lose sight of first cross between them and the their comrades. Having collected Iceland ewes, and they promised as many sheep as they can find; very well. If Mr. Stephenson per- they drive them towards the tents, severes in his laudable exertions, and then shift their quarters. Thus and if the people can be made sen. they go on during a week, when sible of the advantages to be de- they take all the sheep to one of rived from improving the wool, he the large pens constructed for the will have the satisfaction of having purpose, which consist of one large begun a most beneficial improve enclosure, surrounded by a numment. :

ber of smaller ones, for the purThe gathering of the sheep from pose of separating the sheep be


longing to different persons. This are highly ornamented with brass, business is quite a rural festival; cut into various figures. The but the merriment is often mingled common people all ride in the with the lamentations of those who same way, with the legs astride, have lost some of their sheep, or the women having their feet the quarrels of others who have raised so high, that their knees accidentally fixed upon the same are considerably above the back mark for their property. The of the horse. search for sheep is repeated about Forgrinding corn, the Icelanders the middle, and again about the use small handmills, the same end, of October. At this last with those known in Scotland by time, those only who have failed the name of quern. in recovering their sheep on the Though here is little encouformer occasions, are engaged. ragement from the climate, yet Every animal that is unproductive, there are some parts of Iceland or which cannot be used, must, where experiments might be made by a law which is strictly enforced, in cultivating barley, potatoes, and be sent to the mountains about the turnips. Along the shores, where end of May, in order that as much the soil is sandy, and where sea. fine grass as possible may be saved weeds can be procured in abunfor the milch cows and ewes, and dance, something in this way for making hay.

might be done.

But nothing Mention has been made in the can be effected without the suJournal, of the excellence of the perintendence of some active and riding horses of this country. intelligent person, able to comWhen a young horse is thought to bat the prejudices, and to enpromise well, his nostrils are slit courage the exertions of the up, the Icelanders believing, that natives. when exercised, or ridden hard, this operation will allow him to breathe more freely. I do not

On the OSAGE INDIANS. From suppose that the horses of Iceland Major Pike's Exploratory Tracould run on our roads at the great

vels in North America. rate at which I have seen them The Osage Indians appear to go, for any length of time. They have emigrated from the north and are accustomed to scramble slowly west, and from their speaking the through the bogs and over rocks, same language with the Kanses, and to dart rapidly forward when- Ottoes, Missouries, and Mashaws, ever they come to dry and smooth together with one great similarity ground. In travelling, a man has of manners, morals, and customs, generally two or three horses there is left no room to doubt, with him, and he changes from that they were originally the same one to another as they become nation ; but separated by those tired.

great laws of nature, self-preserThe saddle for the use of vation, the love of freedom, and women resembles an elbow-chair, the ambition of various characin which they sit with their feet ters, so inherent in the breast of resting on a board. Some of them




The governinent of the Osages influence on the councils of the is oligarchical, but still partakes of nation, by their pretended divithe nature of a republic; for al- nations, interpretation of dreams, though the power is nominally and magical performances, an vested in a small number of chiefs, illustration of which will be better yet they never undertake any given by the following incident, matter of importance without first which took place during my stay. assembling the warriors, and pro. Having had all the doctors, or posing the subject in council

, magicians, assembled in the lodge there to be discussed and decided of Ca-ha-ga-tonga, (or Cheveu on by a majority. Their chiefs Blanc) and about five hundred are hereditary in most instances, spectators, they had two rows of but there are many men who have fires prepared, around the spot risen to more influence than those where the sacred band was staof illustrious ancestry, by their tioned. They commenced the activity and boldness in war. Al- tragic comedy, by putting a large though there is no code of laws, butcher's knife down their throats, yet there is a tacit acknowledg- the blood appearing to run during ment of the right which some the operation very naturally. The have to command on certain occa- scene was continued by putting sions ; whilst others are bound to sticks through their nose, swallowobey, and even to submit to cor- ing bones, and taking them out poral punishment, as was in- of the nostrils, &c.; at length one stanced in the affair related in my fellow demanded of me what I diary of the 29th of July, when would give if he would run a Has-ha-ke-da-tungar (or the stick through his tongue, and let Big Soldier) whom I had made a another person cut off the piece? partizan to regulate the move- I replied, a shirt: he then apments of the Indians, flogged a parently performed his promise young Indian with arms in his seemingly with great pain, forcing hands. On the whole, the go- a stick through his tongue, and vernment may be termed an oli- then giving a knife to, a bye. garchical republic, where the chiefs stander, who appeared to cut off propose, and the people decide on the piece which he held to the all public acts.

light for the satisfaction of the The manners of the Osage are audience, then joined it to his different from those of any nation tongue, and by a magical charm, I ever saw (except those before healed the wound immediately. mentioned of the same origin), On demanding of me what I having their people divided into thought of the performance? I classes, all the bulk of the nation replied, I would give him twenty being warriors and hunters, the shirts, if he would let me cut off terms being almost synonymous the piece from his tongue. This with them; the rest are divided disconcerted him a great deal, and into two classes, cooks and doc- I was sorry I made the observators, the latter of whom likewise, tion. exercise the functions of priests The cooks are either for the or magicians, and have great general use, or attached particu

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