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from any other.quarter being shut posed rock in the vicinity is, in out by the surrounding hills. like manner, quite penetrated by
Amidst the loose stones and sulphur. The specimens which I fragments of decomposed rock are collected of the crystalized sulmany fissures and crevices, whence phur, as well as of the decomposvery strong sulphureous exhala- ed and undecomposed porphyry, tions arise, and which are diffused were left inadvertently on board to a considerable distance: these the packet at Falmouth, which exhalations are so powerful, as to prevents my having the pleasure impede respiration, and near any of exhibiting them to the society. of the fissures are quite intolerable I did not perceive at this place and suffocating. The buttons of any trace of pyrites, or any other my coat, and some silver and keys metallic substance, except indeed in my pockets, were instantane- two or three small fragments of ously discoloured. An intense de. clay iron-stone at a little distance, gree of heat is at the same time but did not discover even this evolved, which, added to the ap- substance any where in situ. It prehension of the ground crumb- is very probable that the bed of ling and giving way, renders it the glen or ravine might throw difficult and painful to walk near some light on the internal strucany of these fissures. The water ture of the place; but it was too of a rivulet, which Aows down the deep, and its banks infinitely too sides of the mountain, and passes precipitous, for me to venture over this place, is made to boil down to it. I understood that with violence, and becomes load- there was a similar exhalation and ed with sulphureous impregna- deposition of sulphur on the side tions. Other branches of the same of a mountain not more than a rivulet, which do not pass imme- mile distant in a straight line; and diately near these fissures, remain a subterranean communication is cool and limpid; and thus you supposed to exist between the two may with one hand touch one rill, places. which is at the boiling point, and Almost every island in the west, with the other hand touch another ern Archipelago, particularly those rill, which is of the usual tempe- which have the highest land, has, rature of water in that climate. in like manner, its Sulphur, or, as The exhalations of sulphur do not the French better express it, its at all times proceed from the same Souffrière. This is particularly the fissures, but new ones appear to case with Nevis, St. Kitt's, Gua. be daily formed, others beconiing, daloupe, Dominica, Martinico, St. as it were, extinct. On the mar- Lucia, and St. Vincent's. Some gins of these fissures, and indeed islands have several such places, almost over the whole place, are analogous, I presume, to this of to be seen most beautiful crystal- Montserrat; but in others, as Guą, lizations of sulphur, in many spots daloupe, St. Lucia, and St. Vin- . quite as fine and perfect as those cent's, there are decided and well from Vesuvius, or indeed as any characterized volcanos, which are other specimens I have ever met occasionally active, and throw out with. The whole mass of decom, ashes, scoriæ and lava with flame. The volcano of St. Vincent's is ree DESCRIPTION OF AN OURANG presented by Dr. Anderson, and
From Annales du others who have visited it, as ex- Museum d'Hist. Nat. By M. tremely large and magnificent, Frederick Cuvier. and would bear a comparison with some of those of Europe. The female ourang outang These circumstances appear to which formed the subject of my have been entirely overlooked by observations belonged to the same geologists in their speculations species with the durang outangs concerning the origin and forma- described by Tulpius, Edwards, tion of these islands. It has indeed Vosmaer, Allamanıl, and Buffon : occurred to most persons, on sur- it is the Simia Satyrus of Linnæus. veying the regular chain of islands When erect in its natural position extending from the southern Cape its height did not exceed from 26 of Florida to the mouths of the to 30 inches : the length of the Orinoco, as exhibited on the map, arms from the arm-pits to the tips to conclude that it originally of the fingers was 18 inches, and formed part of the American con- the lower extremitiesfrom the top tinent, and that the encroachments of the thigh to the tarsus were of the sea have left only the higher only from eight to nine inches. parts of the land, as insular points The upper jaw had four sharp inabove its present level. But this cisors, the two in the middle were hypothesis, however sinple, and double the breadth of the lateral, apparently satisfactory in itself, two short canine teeth, similar to will be found to accord very parti- those of men, and three molaria ally with the geological structure on each side, with soft tubercles. of the different islands. Many of The lower jaw had also four inthem are made up entirely of vast cisors, two canine teeth, and six accretions of marine organized molaria, but the incisors were of substances; and others evidently equal size. The number of the owe their origin to a volcanic, molaria was not complete. The agency which is either in some germ of a tooth was seen on each degree apparent at the present side at the extrémity of the upper time, or else may be readily traced and under jaws, and it is probable by vestiges comparatively recent. that others would be produced at There is every reason to believe, subsequent periods. The form of however, that some of the islands these teeth was the same with that are really of contemporaneous of the molaria of men and apes in formation with the adjacent parts general. of the continent, from which they The hands had five fingers prehave been disjoined by the incur- cisely like those of men, only the sions of the sea, or by convulsions thumb extended no further than of nature, and it is probably in the first joint of the fore finger. those islands which contain pri. The feet also had five toes, but mitive rocks, that we are chiefly the great toe was placed much to look for a confirmation of this lower than that of a man, and in supposition.
its ordinary position, instead of
being parallel to the other toes, it mammæ, and a longitudinal band formed with them nearly a right on the right side of the belly, were angle. All the toes were similar of copper coloured skin. The in structure to the fingers, and hair of the head, of the fore-arms were very free in their motions, and of the legs, was of a deeper and the whole of them without red than that of the other parts; exception had nails. It had almost and on the head, the back, and no calves to the legs, or buttocks. the upper part of the arms it was The head resembled that of a thicker than any where else: the man, much more than that of any belly was but scantily supplied animal ; the forehead was high with it, and the face still less: the and salient, and the capacity of upper lip, the nose, the palms of the cranium was great, but the the hands, and the soles of the neck was very short. The tongue feet, alone were bare. The nails was soft and similar to that of were black, and the eyes brown. other apes; and although the lips All the hair was woolly, that of were extremely thin, and scarcely the fore-arm grew upwards as did apparent they possessed the power that of the arm downwards to the of extension in a considerable de- elbow. The hair of the head, which gree. The nose, which was com- was harder in general than that of pletely flat, and on a level with the other parts, grew forward. The the face at its base, was slightly skin, but chiefly that of the face, salient at its extremity, and the was coarse and rough, and that nostrils opened downwards. The under the neck was so flabby that eyes were like those of other the animal seemed to have a goiapes, and the ears completely re- tre when lying on its side. sembled those of men.
The ourang outang in question The vulva was very small, its was entirely formed for living labia scarcely perceptible, and the among trees. When it wanted to clitoris entirely hid; but on each ascend a tree, it laid hold of the side of the vulva there was a flesh- trunk or branches with its haods coloured streak where the skin and feet, making use of its arms seemed to be softer than that of only, and not of its thighs, as a the other parts, Is this an indica- man would do in similar, circumtion of labia? Two mammæ were stances. It could pass easily from placed on the breast like those of one tree, to another when the females. The belly was naturally branches met, so that in a thick very large. This animal had nei. forest it would never be necessary ther tail nor callosities.
for it to descend to the ground, on It was almost entirely covered which it moves with considerable with a reddish hair, more or less difficulty. In general, all its modarkin colour, and of various thick- tions are slow but they seem to be nesses on the different parts of the painful when it is made to walk body. The colour of the skin was from one place to another : at first generally that of slate ; but the it rests its two hands on the ears, the eye-lids, the muzzle, the ground, and brings its hinder parts inside of the bands and feet, the slowly forward until its feet are between its bands or fore paws; assiduity. It ate almost indiscriafterwards, supporting itself on its minately, fruits, pulse, eggs, milk, hind legs, it advances the upper and animal food : bread, coffee, part of its body, rests again on its and oranges were its most favouhands as at first, and thus moves
rite aliments; and it once emptied forward. It is only when we take
an ink-bottle which came in its it by one hand that it walks on way without being incommoded. its feet, and in this case it uses its It had no particular times for goother hand to support it. I have ing to'meals and ate at all seasons scarcely ever seen it stand firmly like an infant. Its sight and hearon the sole of the foot; most fre- ing were good. Music made no quently it only rested on the outer impression upon it. The mammiedge, apparently desirous of pre- feræ are not formed by nature to serving its toes from all friction on be sensible to its charms, none of the ground; nevertheless it some. their wants seem to require it, and times rested on the whole of the even with mankind it is an arựififoot, but in this case it kept the cial want; on savages it has no two last phalanges bent inwards, other effect than a noise would except the great toe, which was
have. stretched out. When resting, it
When defending itself, our ousate on its buttocks with its legs rang outang bit and struck with folded under it in the manner of its hands ; but it was only against the inhabitants of the east.
It children that it showed any roguelay indiscriminately on its back or ry, and it was always caused by on its side, drawing up its legs and impatience rather than by anger. crossing its hands over its breast; In general it was gentle and affecand it was fond of being covered, tionate, and seemed to delight in for it drew over it all the clothes society. It was fond of being cait could reach.
ressed, gave real kisses, and seemThis animal used its hands ined to experience a great deal of all the essential motions in which pleasure in sucking the fingers of men employ theirs; and it is evi. those who approached it; but it dent that it only requires expe- did not suck its own fingers. Its rience to enable it to use them on cry was guttural and sharp, but it almost every occasion. It
gene- was only heard when it eagerly rally carried its food to its mouth wanted any thing. All its signs with its fingers; but sometimes were then very expressive : it also it seized it with its long lips; darted its head forward in order to and it was by suction thatit drank, show its disapprobation, pouted like all other animals which have when it was not obeyed, and when lips capable of being lengthened. angry it cried very loudly, rolling It made use of its sense of smelle itself on the ground. On these ing in order to decide upon the occasions its neck wasprodigiously nature of the aliments which were swelled. presented to it, and which it was By the above description it will not acquainted with, and it seem- be seen that the ourang outang in ed to consult this sense with great question had attained a size suff
ciently great for its age, which was The means which succeeded in not more than 15 or 16 months : restoring this animal to some deits teeth, limbs, and powers were gree of health, were good vịcalmost perfect; whence it may be tuals, a proper temperature, and, inferred that it had nearly ac- above all, cleanliness. At first quired its full growth, and that its the disease was combated with tolife does not extend beyond 25 nics : bark being inadmissible in years.
the usual way was administered in This ourang outang arrived at baths and frictions; but these reParis in the beginning of March medies fatigued the animal more 1808. M. Decaen, an officer of than they relieved it and they the French navy, and brother to were given up. The constipation the governor of the Isles of France of the bowels was nevertheless and Bourbon, brought it from the obstinate, and it was necessary to former place, and presented it to have frequent recourse to bathing, the Empress Josephine, whose and this treatment was pursued taste for natural history is conspi- till the animal's death. The decuous. When it arrived in the sire for sucking which it evinced, Isle of France from Borneo where suggested the idea of suckling it it was born, it was only three again, but it refused the breast of months old; it remained three a woman who volunteered on this months in the Isle of France, was singular service. It also refused three months on its voyage to to suckle the teats of a goat. At Spain where it was landed, and first it seemed fond of milk, but having been two months in its it soon got tired of it, and of journey to Paris, it must have been every other aliment, which was 10or 11 months old when it arrived given it in succession, with the in the winter of 1808. The fa- exception of oranges, which it tigues of a long sea voyage, but seemed fond of to the last. In above all, the cold which the about five months the animal animal experienced in crossing the died; and on opening its body, Pyrenees amid the snows, reduced most of the viscera were found it to the last extremity; and when to be disorganized and full of it arrived at Paris several of its obstructions. toes were frozen, and it laboured Such was the animal who formunder a hectic fever brought on ed the subject of my observations ; by obstructions in the spleen ac- and, far different from those which companied by a cough: it refused have hitherto been described, it all sustenance, and was almost had never been subjected to any motionless. In this state it came particular education, and was only into the possession of M. Godard, influenced by the circumstances in a friend of M. Decaen, who suc- which it happened to be placed : ceeded in partially restoring it to it owed nothing to habit, nothing health.
mechanical entered into its acI visited it almost every day tions, all of them were the simple while it lived; and Messrs. God effects of volition, or at least of ard and Decken enabled me to add nature. Now that I have deto the observations I made.