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REVISED, WITH NOTES, ADDITIONS, AND AMENDMENTS,

,

BY
ALPHONSO J. ROBINSON.

ILLUSTRATED WITH

Numerous Maps and Engravings.

“Let me once understand the real geography of a country-its organic structure, if I may so call it; the form of its skeleton--that is, of its hills, the magnitude and
course of its veins and arteries—that is, of its streams and rivers ; let me conceive of it as a whole, made up of connected parts: and then the position of man's dwellings
viewed in reference to these parts, becomes at once easily remembered, and lively and intelligible besides "

DR. ARNOLD

CHANGED TO QUARTO FORM,

WITH QUESTIONS ON THE MAPS,

AN ARTICLE ON THE PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. OF THE UNITED STATES,

CHARLES CARROLL MORGAN.

NEW YORK:
PUBLISHED BY SHELDON

COMPANY,

S MURRAY STREET.

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In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Eastern District of New York.

DAVIES & KENT, Stereotypers and Electrotypera,

183 WILLIAN ST., N. Y.

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The following pages have been prepared with a view of supplying the want of a treatise on Physical Geography, adapted to the use of Schools and Acudemies. It is rather a remarkable fact, that among the multitude and variety of school-books prepared for the schools in the United States, there is not one devoted exclusively to this science. The consequence is, that Physical Geography, as a separate study, is very rarely taught in our schools, and that all, or most of the knowledge acquired respecting it, is what is incidentally obtained in pursuing other kindred studies.

The Author has aimed to present none but well-authenticated facts, and accordingly he has consulted the latest and most reliable authorities. Among the works from which valuable information has been obtained are “ LYELL's PrinciPLES OF GEOLOGY,“MILNER'S GALLERY OF NATURE," "MILNER'S GEOGRAPHY," “ KAEMTZ'S METEOROLOGY," "HUGHES' OUTLINES OF GEOGRAPHY,” and “SOMERVILLE'S PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.” To A. D. Bache, Superintendent of the United States Coast Survey, the Author is indebted for various Reports of the operations of that department, and for a Tide Table of the United States, which was specially prepared for this book.

The maps were compiled with the greatest care by Mr. George W. Colton, the aim being to exhibit the most remarkable and interesting features of Physical Geography, so far as they are capable of being represented to the eye.

It is proper to observe that, in the preparation of this treatise, no attempt at originality was made, but simply an effort to digest and arrange the more important facts in an intelligible style for learners. In many instances the Author has employed the phraseology of other writers, without always defacing the pages with quotation marks and references. Lengthened extracts, and those containing peculiar views of an author, are credited to their proper sources.

The Author can not refrain from expressing the hope that the book will meet the approbation of teachers, and excite in the minds of learners a desire for further attainments in this interesting department of science.

ADVERTISEMENT TO THE QUARTO EDITION.

In order to accommodate in this work an increased number of maps (some of them on a warge scale), and to admit the introduction of map questions on the same pages as the maps, or on the opposite pages, it has been changed to quarto form. In making this change, and in adding the map questions, however, no alteration has been made in the numbers of the paragraphs or descriptive Lessons. The references to the book, therefore, except for pages, will be found the same either in the duodecimo or quarto form.

It is believed that the above-mentioned additions much enhance the value of the work; since, by the more extensive use of maps, the subject is not only more perfectly illustrated, but a greater number of facts are taught through the medium of the eye, and thus are more clearly and durably impressed on the memory, while the student is oftener led to exercise his powers of observation and of philosophic deduction.

A carefully prepared chapter on the physical geography of the United States has been inserted in the Appendix, for the instruction of those who prefer seeking a knowledge of the subject in this connection. It embodies the results of the latest researches, and is one of the most complete essays on the natural character and resources of our country that has yet been published.

Many new pictorial illustrations, intended for instruction as well as embellishment, have also been inserted.

It is hoped the foregoing improvements will commend themselves to all who are interested in education, and will lead to a more extensive use of the book in the higher grades of schools.

CONTENTS.

INTRODUCTION.

PART II.

DEFINITION of Physical Geography-how dividedthe First Part—the Socond Part-the

THE WATERS.

Third Part-the Fourth Part....

Page 1

LESSON 1.-CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF WATER : The fresh water-the salt water--salts

contained in sea-water-salt-water lakes—the benevolence of the Deity as manifested

in the wide diffusion of water over the globe......

Pages 25-27

PART 1.

LESSON II.—MINERAL Springs : Acidulous waters-chalybeate springs—sulphurous

springs-saline springs, the salt springs at Salina and Syracuse--mineral springs of the

Τ Η Ε LAND.
United States...

27-28

LESSON I.-EXTENT AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE LAND ...

......... 2

LESSON III.-Rivers: Their sourcesbasins-area of the principal river basins-course

of rivers - table of river windings...

28-29

LESSON II.-CONTINENTS : Eastern Continent-its extreme limits. North America : its

length and breadth-area-coasl-line-indentations, South America: its dimen- LESSON IV.--Rivers (continued): The fall of rivers-catoracts - the Falls of Niagara-

sions

2-3 of St. Anthony—other noted falls in America-principal waterfalls of the Eastern Con-

tinent.

29-30

LESSON III.-CONTINENTS (continued): Eastern Continent: its length and breadth-area.

Europe : its dimensions-its peninsular character. Asia : its dimensions. Africa: its i LESSON V.- Rivers (continued): The termination of rivers-deltas–the delta of the

dimensions. Table of the area of the five grand divisions, their extent of coast-line, Mississippi, how produced-sedimentary matter of the Ganges-oceanic rivers--conti-

etc. General remarks on the continents.....

8-4

nental rivers-causes which determine the magnitude of rivers - proportional quantity

LESSON IV.-ISLANDS : Australia-table of the area of some of the largest islands, and of water discharged by some of the principal rivers-inundations of rivers-historio
their comparative size-Rockall-chains of islands or continental islands-oceanic associations of rivers....

80-32
islands-archipelagoes - single islands, St. Helena, Ascension Islands- volcanic isl-

LESSON VI.-Tile RIVER SYSTEMS OF TIE WESTERN CONTINENT: North American Riv-

ands-examples of islands suddenly formed by volcanic action, Graham Island... 5-6

ers.--Divisions of the continent with reference to its drainage—the Mississippi-iho

LESSON V.-COBAL ISLANDS : Great extent of coralline structures Great Barrier Reef-

Missouri-the Ohio - the St. Lawrence--other streams draining the Atlantic slıpe-

description of coral animals and Their operations- an atoll - lagoons encircling reefs rivers draining the region west of the Rocky Mountains-rivers draining the northern

--barrier-reess-action of the waves on the Great Barrier Reef-Florida Reef-Florida

slope-other streams

82-83

Keys - coral fringes-observations on coral islands by Capt. Basil Hall..

6-8

LESSON VII.-River SYSTEMS OF THE WESTERN CONTINENT ("ontinued): South Amer.
LESSON VI.—MOUNTAINS: Insulated mountains, usual arrangement of mountains -

ican Ricers. - The Orinoco - the Amazon-the Rio de la Plata........

83-84

mountain systems of the two continents—secondary ranges-highest known mountains

on the globe-loftiest summis in the other four grand divisions- table of heights above LESSON VIII.-River SYSTEMS OF THE Eastern CONTINENT: The two principal river

the sea of some remarkable inhabited sites-list of some remarkable heights which systems of Europe - the Volga—Danube-Rhine-other European rivers....... 34-35

have been reacbed.....

8-9

LESSON IX.-River SYSTEMS OF TILE EASTERN CONTINENT (continued): The two prin-

LESSON VII.-THE MOUNTAIN Systems OF THE WESTERN CONTINENT: North American cipal classes of Asiatic rivers--the Obi-Yenesei-Lena--Ganges-the Indus-other

Mountains.—The Rocky Mountains, the highest summits the Mountains of the West Asiatic rivers-drainage by continental rivers. African Rivers—the Nile-the Niger

Coast--the Apalachian or Allegany ranges, Green Mountains, White Mountains, Adi- -other African rivers......

85-36

rondack Mountains, Catskill Mountains- highest summits in the Apalachian range-

LESSON X.-LAKES: Distribution of fresh-water lakes-salt-water lakes--physical dif-

Ozark Mountains—the mountains in Mexico-South Americun Mountains. The

ference of lakes-lakes which have no outlet, and do not receive any running water

Andes-how divided-peculiarities of each division. The mountains of Guiana-of

-lakes which receive water, but have no ai parent ou:let-lakes which receive no

9-11

streams, but give birth to some-lakes which both receive and discharge water-ele-

LESSON VIII.--Mountaix SYSTEMS OF THE EASTERN CONTINENT: European Mount- vations of lakes.......

86-37

ains --The Balkan Mountains--the Alps, celebrated passes - the Appenines--the Car-

LESSON XI.-- LAKES (continued): North American Laker.-Lake Superior-Huron-

pathian Mountaine-he Mountains of the Spanish peninsula—the Scandinavian

Michigan-Ontario-other North American Lakes. South American Lakes.-Lako

Mountains--the Ural Mountains. Ariatic Jountains.—The Himalaya Mountains-

Titicaca..

87-38

the Altai Mountains-the Hindoo-Koosh - the Mountains of Armenia--the chain of

Mount Taurus.- African Mountains.-Atlas Mountains—the Mount ins of Abyssinia LESSON XII.-LAKES (continued): European Lakes.-Tables of the dimensions of the

-mountains of the western coast-of the eastern coast-of South Africa....... 11-13 principal European lakes, their elevations, etc. Asiatic Lakes. African Lakes. 38-89

LESSON IX.-UPLAND PLAINS OR TABLE-LANDS: Table-lands of North America -pla- LESSON XIII.-THE OCEAN: Partial oceans and their branches-the Arctic Ocean

teau of Chihuahua-table-lands of South America--the most extensive table-land of Eu- floating masses of ice-sheet ice-the Grinnell Expedition-icebergs--point of the
rope-table-lands of Asia-elevation of the plain of Tibet--table-lands of Africa. 13-14 greatest cold-the Atlantic Ocean—“Banks of Fucus”- the Pacific Ocean-the Indian

89-41
LESSON X.–LOWLAND PLAINS: The great central plain of North America-prairies-

Ocean—the Antarctic Ocean - discoveries of Wilkes and Ross......
the plain or lowland of the Atlantic coast-the great central plain of South America- LESSON XIV.-THE OCEAN (continued): Temperature-color-depth-deep-sca sound.
llanos - selvas-pampas..
14-16 ings......

41-42

LESSON XI.-GLACIERS: Regions of glaciers—their origin-movements of glaciers-ap- LESSON XV.-THE OCEAN (continued): Waves-tides-theory of tides explained - tide

pearance of glaciers-their uses........

16-17

table for the coast of the United States......

42-44

LESSON XII.-Snow MOUNTAINS AND AVALANCHES : Drift, sliding, creeping, and ice LESSON XVI.-THE OCEAN (continued): Currents-causes of the oceanic currents-
avalanches-destructive effects of avalanches.....

17-19 arctic current-equatorial current-Mexican Gulf Stream......

LESSON XIII.-VOLCANOES: Active, intermittent, or extinct volcanoes-number and

distribution of volcanoes..

19-20

PART III.

LESSON XIV.–VOLCANIO Regions: The Volcanic Regions of the Andes-of North

America. Volcanoes of Mexico -of the West India Islands. Volcanic Region from

THE ATMOSPHERE.

the Aleutian Isles to the Moluccas and Isles of Sunda. Volcanic Regions of the Jedi-

LESSON 1.- COMPOSITION OF AIR: Properties of Oxygen gas....

terranean, ......

20 21

LESSON II.-PROPERTIES OF THE ATMOSPARRE: Transparency-Auidity-weight-how

LESSON XV.-VESUVIUS : Description of its crater - Herculaneum and Pompeii. Etna

indicated—the use that is made of barometers to ascertain the height of mountaing-

-its eruption in 1669. Volcanoes of Iceland-eruption of Skaptar Jokul in 1753.

elasticity of the atmosphere-effect of rarefied air on the human body .......... 47-48

Geysere....

21-23

LESSON III.-Winds: How caused- uses—how their direction is indicated the direc-
LESSON XVI.—EARTHQUAKES : Proof that earthquakes and volcanoes have a similar tion of the wind in the upper regions often the reverse of what it is in the lower-

origin-intensity of earthquakes-movements of the earth they produce-their dura- velocity of winds.- Variable Winds.—Table of the relative frequency of winds in dif-
tion, instances—their frequency--their eff:cts in eleveting and depressing the land, serent countries—cold winds—the bora, mistral, vent de bise, gallego-hot winde
instances-clefts and fissures-fatal effects of earthquakes........
23-24 simoon--harmattan-sirocco-salano. ...........................

............. 12-31

Brazil.........

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